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Fuzhong Weng, Tong Zhu, and Banghua Yan

1. Introduction While the skill for tracking tropical cyclones has been significantly improved during the past decades, an accurate prediction of their intensity, formation, and dissipation processes remains challenging. This forecast difficulty is due partially to a lack of knowledge on storm structures, especially when their circulations are weak and diffuse over open oceans and few upper-air observations are available from ships and commercial and reconnaissance aircraft. By using satellite

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Arthur Y. Hou and Sara Q. Zhang

sounders (e.g., AMSU, ATMS, MHS) (see list of acronyms in the appendix ), as well as precipitation rates and latent heating profiles derived from these measurements ( Simpson et al. 2000 ). In recent years, significant progress has been made in using these observations in data assimilation to improve atmospheric analyses and forecasts. Numerical weather prediction centers such as the NCEP, JMA, and ECMWF have begun using precipitation data or rain-affected microwave brightness temperatures in

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Ronald M. Errico, George Ohring, Fuzhong Weng, Peter Bauer, Brad Ferrier, Jean-François Mahfouf, and Joe Turk

1. Introduction As a result of better numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, more powerful computers, new satellite observations, and more efficient and effective data assimilation systems, the forecast skill of midtropospheric synoptic flow patterns has steadily improved over the past few decades. Today’s 4-day forecasts of those patterns are as accurate as 3-day predictions were just a decade ago and as 2-day forecasts were 2 decades ago. Forecasts for the Southern Hemisphere, where

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Peter M. Norris and Arlindo M. da Silva

paid to predicted cloud properties, due to the slower time scales associated with cloud-induced radiative heating rates compared with the forecast duration. Nevertheless, clouds do have an important societal impact from day to day, in terms of their effects on diurnal temperature range and sunlight exposure. Furthermore, since NWP and GCM models have become more merged, typically sharing the same physics, advances in cloud parameterization in either climate or weather studies ought to benefit the

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Ronald M. Errico, Peter Bauer, and Jean-François Mahfouf

analyzed, but also specifically about the cloud or precipitation fields affecting them. Extracting the latter information is, however, not as straightforward and is more error prone than performing more standard retrievals of temperature and total water vapor in cloud-free regions. Unfortunately, in many areas of the globe, the presence of clouds, or especially precipitation, indicates that some dynamically important weather is occurring. Subsequent forecasts are also often sensitive to initial

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Philippe Lopez

1. Introduction Over the past 40 yr, our ability to forecast the weather and to simulate the climate of our planet with numerical models has strongly benefited from the growing understanding of the ocean–atmosphere system and from the constant progress in computer technology. Whether a given numerical model is able to properly forecast the state of the atmosphere up to 10 days or to produce realistic climatic simulations on monthly time scales strongly depends on its ability to represent the

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Fuzhong Weng

1. Introduction Satellite observations of the atmosphere, land, and oceans are now a major component of the environmental observing system, since they provide critically important information to better understand and forecast short-term as well as climatic changes in weather. Through data assimilation techniques, the satellite observations as well as other sources of atmospheric and oceanic data, sampled at different times, intervals, and locations can be combined into a unified and consistent

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Christopher W. O’Dell, Peter Bauer, and Ralf Bennartz

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has begun assimilation of microwave radiances under precipitating conditions using an Eddington model ( Bauer et al. 2004 , 2006a , b ), and other efforts are under way elsewhere ( Deblonde et al. 2007 ). Future assimilation efforts may also include the assimilation of infrared radiances under cloudy conditions ( Heilliette and Garand 2007 ). To produce a successful assimilation, it is necessary to be able to accurately simulate radiances

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Ruiyue Chen, Fu-Lung Chang, Zhanqing Li, Ralph Ferraro, and Fuzhong Weng

:10.1029/2003JD003906 . Chang , F-L. , Z. Li , and S. A. Ackerman , 2000 : Examining the relationship between cloud and radiation quantities derived from satellite observations and model calculations. J. Climate , 13 , 3842 – 3859 . Derber , J. C. , D. F. Parrish , and S. J. Lord , 1991 : The new global operational analysis system at the National Meteorological Center. Wea. Forecasting , 6 , 538 – 547 . Ferraro , R. R. , and Coauthors , 2005 : NOAA operational

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Qing Yue, K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, B. H. Kahn, P. Yang, and G. G. Mace

, 253 – 264 . Aumann , H. H. , D. Gregorich , and D. Barron , 2004 : Spectral cloud-filtering of AIRS data: Non-polar ocean. Proc. SPIE , 5548 , 313 – 320 . Baum , B. A. , A. J. Heymsfield , P. Yang , and S. M. Thomas , 2005 : Bulk scattering properties for the remote sensing of ice clouds. Part I: Microphysical data and models. J. Appl. Meteor. , 44 , 1885 – 1895 . Chahine , M. T. , and Coauthors , 2006 : AIRS: Improving weather forecasting and providing new data on

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