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Stevens T. Chan and Martin J. Leach

1. Introduction Urban areas are the mostly likely locations for atmospheric releases of hazardous material, whether resulting from industrial accidents or from terrorist acts. To protect the population effectively, there is a great need for observational and modeling tools to track and to forecast the transport and dispersion of the hazardous material from such releases. The need for robust modeling tools, among others, was stressed in a recent report by the Committee on the Atmospheric

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Donald A. Burrows, Eric A. Hendricks, Steve R. Diehl, and Robert Keith

, J. S. Shinn , R. P. Hosker , J. F. Bowers , and J. C. Pace , 2004 : Overview of Joint Urban 2003—An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1 . Baik , J-J. , J-J. Kim , and H. J. S. Fernando , 2003 : A CFD model for simulating urban flow and

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Steve R. Diehl, Donald A. Burrows, Eric A. Hendricks, and Robert Keith

Lagrangian tracer model overview To model transport and dispersion of contaminants, RUSTIC flow and turbulence fields are passed to MESO, which is based on Lagrangian tracer techniques. MESO has been primarily sponsored by the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for general-purpose “rural” transport and dispersion applications and can ingest 3D forecast predictions. For nonurban dispersion predictions, MESO contains a sophisticated convective boundary layer model and uses the stochastic

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M. A. Nelson, E. R. Pardyjak, M. J. Brown, and J. C. Klewicki

. Shinn , R. P. Hosker , J. F. Bowers , and J. C. Pace , 2004 : Overview of Joint Urban 2003—An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1 . Antonia , R. A. , Y. Zhou , and M. Matsumura , 1993 : Spectral characteristics of momentum and heat transfer in the

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M. A. Nelson, E. R. Pardyjak, J. C. Klewicki, S. U. Pol, and M. J. Brown

. Clawson , and M. Brown , 2002 : Overview of Urban 2000: A multiscale field study of dispersion through an urban environment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 521 – 536 . Allwine , K. J. , M. J. Leach , L. W. Stockham , J. S. Shinn , R. P. Hosker , J. F. Bowers , and J. C. Pace , 2004 : Overview of Joint Urban 2003—An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated

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Eric A. Hendricks, Steve R. Diehl, Donald A. Burrows, and Robert Keith

dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1 . Arya , S. P. , 2001 : Introduction to Micrometeorology . Academic Press, 415 pp . Brown , M. J. , 2004 : Urban dispersion—Challenges for fast response modeling. Preprints, Fifth Conf. on the Urban Environment, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Amer

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Yansen Wang, Cheryl L. Klipp, Dennis M. Garvey, David A. Ligon, Chatt C. Williamson, Sam S. Chang, Rob K. Newsom, and Ronald Calhoun

2003—An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1 . Banta , R. M. , R. K. Newsom , J. K. Lundquist , Y. L. Pichugina , R. L. Coulter , and L. D. Mahrt , 2002 : Nocturnal low-level jet characteristics over Kansas during CASES-99. Bound.-Layer Meteor

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Julia E. Flaherty, Brian Lamb, K. Jerry Allwine, and Eugene Allwine

Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1 . Arnold , S. J. , and Coauthors , 2004 : Introduction to the DAPPLE air pollution project. Sci. Total Environ. , 332 , 139 – 153 . Barad , M. L. , 1958 : Project Prairie Grass: A field program in diffusion. Vols. I and II. Geophysics Res. Paper 59, AFCRC-TR-58-235, Air Force Cambridge Reseach Center, Bedford, MA, 439 pp

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Julia E. Flaherty, David Stock, and Brian Lamb

in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone and Eighth Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1 . Berdahl , P. , and S. E. Bretz , 1997 : Preliminary survey of the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials. Energy Buildings , 25 , 149 – 158 . Britter , R. E. , and S. R. Hanna , 2003 : Flow and dispersion in urban areas. Annu. Rev

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