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Reiner Schlitzer

al. (2002) , when combined with contributions from other production sites in the Southern Ocean. In the model, there are four regions around the Antarctic continent where significant downwelling of dense and CFC-rich waters occurs: the Weddell and Ross Seas, the region east of the Amery Basin, and the Australian–Antarctic Basin ( Fig. 8b ). All of these areas show enhanced CFC concentrations at the bottom. d. CFC forecast It has been shown above that model solution B produces radiocarbon and CFC

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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

trends in NCEP–NCAR and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalyses came into good agreement after the advent of satellite observations in 1979. Other modes of variability are also important on interannual scales (e.g., White 2004 ). A time series of the SAM, smoothed with both a 1- and a 5-yr running mean, is shown in Fig. 9 . This figure uses the time series of the monthly SAM index provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction

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Victor Zlotnicki, John Wahr, Ichiro Fukumori, and Yuhe T. Song

“entirely encircling the Antarctic continent” shows the strongest (negative) correlation (>90%) with transport changes across Drake Passage, while the BP most anywhere north of the current had zero correlation with the transport; the SSP to the north has a weaker positive correlation, and to the south it has a strong negative correlation, but it is not as clear and widespread as that for the BP. Hughes et al. (1999) used European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) wind stress and wind

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