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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

-term forecast of a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model utilizing an unprecedented global resolution of about 8 km (for data sources, see the appendix ). In our days of ceaseless swells of pictures taken everywhere and anytime on the planet, a snapshot taken from a sensor much different than a camera, taken from a perspective so much different than from Earth, and superimposed with numerical predictions reflecting the observed flow features with a remarkable realism elicits wonder and admiration. Fig

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Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Gerhard Held, and Ana Maria Gomes

configuration in 2005 it completed a full set of plan position indicators (PPIs) at 11 elevations every 7.5 min when in volume scan mode. The beamwidth is 2°, and the range resolution is 1 km. Postprocessing of the clutter-filtered radar data was conducted using the storm tracking algorithm Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis and Nowcasting (TITAN; Dixon and Wiener 1993 ). Data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction’s Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP CFSR; Saha et al

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DONALD C. GABY

Mexico and at 25 kt across the YucatanPeninsula. On the basis of these measurements, the laterforecast called for frontal passage at Miami at 2100 ESTon March 3. Pa.ssage 1va.s recorded at the Miami Airportat 2048 EST. The intensity of the prefrontal line of thunder-stornls evident in the ATS 3 pictures, the speed of move-ment of the front, and reported surface winds also led toa special warning t,o the shrimp fleet fishing off DryTortugas. This re\-ised forecast called for more severeweather to

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HENRY COCHRAN, NORMAN THOMAS, and FRANCES C. PARMENTER

61 2 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW vol. 98, No. 8UDC 551.576.1(265.5+965)(W.l)PICTURE OF THE MONTH"Rope" Cloud HENRY COCHRAN and NORMAN THOMAS Weather Bureau Forecast Office, Wake Island FRANCES C. PARMENTERNational Environmental Satellite Center, ESSA, Washington, D.C.On Feb. 16, 1969, the meteorologists at the WeatherBureau Forecast Office on Wake Island observed an un-usual and interesting "rope" cloud formation in the APTsatellite data. This ESSA 7 satellite photograph of thearea (fig

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TERRY R. SCHOENI

PICTURE OF THE MONTHAutumn Snow Storms in the PlainsTERRY R. SCHOENI4atellite Field Services Station, National EnvironmentalSatellite Service, NOAA, Kansas City, Mo.River Forecast Centers (RFC's) and Weather ServiceForecast Offices (WSFO's) in the Great Plains Statesrequire more detailed snow cover data than can beobtained from standard reporting stations. Early in theseason, the RFC acquires initial snowfall reports fromtheir river-rainfall network but receives little subsequentdata between

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

-mb contours (dashed lines) at 1200 QMT, and severeweather, Mar. 28, 1972.three funnel clouds, and numerous hailstorms throughoutTexas, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi (fig. 6).Recent studies of frequent-interval pictures from ATS 3have allowed meteorologists to recognize the potentiallysevere cloud patterns shown here. Satellite data oftenprecede radar data in locating lines of developing cumulo-nimbus. These data are presently being acquired andincorporated into the operations and forecasts

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HENRY W. BRANDLI, JOHN W. OLIVER, and RAMON J. ESTU

and day. The Detachment 11forecast facility at Cape Kennedy, Fla., was the fhtoperational site in the world to receive and process thishighest quality, real-time, expanded, simultaneous scan-ning radiometer data. Detachment 11 uses a modifiedSTttLAWRENCE RIVERLAKE ERIELON6 ISLANDCAPE KENNEDYPOPfl 35,000'OPq 5,000 FT27" C SEA TEMP CARIBBEANFIGURE l."Geographicdy gridded simultaneous NOAA 2 scanning radiometry imagery for 1400-1423 GMT, Oct. 20, 1972.538 / Vol. 101, No. 6 / Monthly Weather

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

-cessive satellite photographs, is shown in figure 2. Figure1 depicting the arched squall line thus provides a graphictool for forecasting this mesoscale phenomena. REFERENCEHurd, Willis E., "Northers of the Gulf of Tehuantepec," MonthlyWeather Review, Vol. 57, No. 5, May 1929, pp. 192-194.iFIQURE 1.-ESSA 9 photograph on Feb. 3, 1970, at 2053 om.I 3-3-7(0m2152GMT- 3-4-70IOOOWFIQURE 2.-Position of the Gulf of Tehuantepec squall line.

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import,ance tooperational weatlher forecast,ing, an act.ivity which morethan my ot,her supports Rnd just,ifies t.he ent,ire meteor-ological establishment, it, behooves us AS profe,ssionals toddress ourselves wit,h diligence t,o t,he important problemof estttblishing what, t3hese lines are. This means asking,tknd nt,tempt,ing to answer, t,he quest,ion of why theseimporhnt convect.ive lines often appear on our weatherchnrt,s (when they appear at, all) only as empirical addenda,running t,he gamut of

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JOSEPH A. MILLER

Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) atKansas City, Mo., during the day.One of the prime mechanisms responsible for the releaseof convect,ive instability is the intrusion of dry air at lowor middle levels in the troposphere into or over t,he low-level moist, tongue. filler (1972) states: "In situationspreceding significant tornado development, a distinct drytongue is present in the low or middle levels, and, providedother criteria are satisfied, the primary development willoccur where the dry air intrudes

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