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Sophia T. Merrifield, Louis St. Laurent, Breck Owens, Andreas M. Thurnherr, and John M. Toole

of how ocean processes are parameterized, the water mass characteristics of temperature and salinity can vary radically. As small changes in temperature and salinity properties evolve over long model simulation integrations, the water mass properties can diverge from reality, destroying the ability of such models to forecast thermodynamic budgets. As models will never be able to inform us of the subgrid-scale processes that drive ocean mixing, it is therefore necessary to use the data provided

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Ivana Cerovečki and Matthew R. Mazloff

John Gilson. The ERA-Interim dataset, developed by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, was obtained from Research Data Archive at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Computational and Information Systems Laboratory ( ). Objective analyses of sea surface salinity were produced by Frontier Research System for Global Change, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center/Japan, 2005 and made available as “Subsurface Temperature and

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Ross Tulloch, Raffaele Ferrari, Oliver Jahn, Andreas Klocker, Joseph LaCasce, James R. Ledwell, John Marshall, Marie-Jose Messias, Kevin Speer, and Andrew Watson

span the top 1900 m, are all less than 35 m thick. 1 The Interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim; Simmons et al. 2006 ) 6-h winds and buoyancy fluxes force the model’s surface, and the Ocean Comprehensive Atlas (OCCA; Forget 2010 ) provides monthly transports, heat and salt fluxes, as well as sea ice area and thickness at the lateral boundaries. Initial model conditions are an interpolation of the 1° × 1° resolution OCCA state on 1 January 2005

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