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William Ryan Currier, Theodore Thorson, and Jessica D. Lundquist

1. Introduction Quantifying the amount of precipitation that falls as snow in complex terrain, where we have limited observations, remains a challenge. Methods that produce estimates of spatially distributed precipitation range from physically based numerical weather models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ), to statistical models that spatially interpolate surface precipitation observations. A widely used statistical model is the Parameter

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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

issues are explored in this paper. The aim of this study is to evaluate precipitation biases and low-level microphysics in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, comparing observed and simulated rain drop size distributions and precipitation during the OLYMPEX winter experiment and two heavy precipitation events. Our goal is to explore the following questions: What biases exist in simulated precipitation over the Pacific Northwest in current microphysical parameterization schemes? How do

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Zeinab Takbiri, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and F. Joseph Turk

( Doswell et al. 1990 ) for the presented results in Figs. 7 – 9 . We also compare the algorithm outputs with the precipitation phase products of the MRMS on a seasonal basis ( Figs. 10 , 11 ). Finally, some results are presented at a storm scale to demonstrate the detection capabilities of the algorithm for a few precipitation events that are coincidentally captured by the DPR and high-resolution ground-based radars ( Figs. 12 , 13 ) and simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

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Qian Cao, Thomas H. Painter, William Ryan Currier, Jessica D. Lundquist, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

been run at resolutions of 4 km [recently increased to 1.33 km using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model] over the Pacific Northwest since 1997 ( Mass et al. 2003 ). Anders et al. (2007) and Minder et al. (2008) evaluated the performance of these products over the Olympics. They found that the model simulated the windward ridge–valley pattern of orographic precipitation well at seasonal time scales, but there were major errors for individual events. They attributed this to

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Yagmur Derin, Emmanouil Anagnostou, Marios Anagnostou, and John Kalogiros

methods to validate satellite constellation measurements with surface rainfall measured by dense rain gauge and disdrometer networks at various sites. One such campaign was OLYMPEX, which was conducted in the Pacific Northwest. The goal of OLYMPEX was to validate rain and snow measurements in midlatitude frontal systems as they moved from ocean to coast to mountains and determine how remotely sensed measurements of precipitation by GPM could be applied to a range of hydrological, weather forecasting

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