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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

below is motivated by the need to better understand and predict storm total rainfall and streamflow over several hours to several days in extreme events. To do so, the analysis bridges the fields of meteorology and hydrology. Extreme precipitation forecasts are often low by a factor of 2 in the region partly because weather prediction models do not adequately represent key AR characteristics ( Ralph et al. 2010 ), including landfall duration, and the cloud and precipitation microphysical processes

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

1. Introduction One of the greatest challenges in meteorology is the prediction of precipitation, particularly the accurate prediction of extreme precipitation events (i.e., events with large precipitation amounts). Recent surveys of public use of forecast information ( Lazo et al. 2009 ) have documented that precipitation prediction (e.g., the location, timing, and amount of precipitation) is the most heavily utilized part of standard forecasts. This general public demand for precipitation

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H. Leijnse, R. Uijlenhoet, C. Z. van de Beek, A. Overeem, T. Otto, C. M. H. Unal, Y. Dufournet, H. W. J. Russchenberg, J. Figueras i Ventura, H. Klein Baltink, and I. Holleman

to preview the data by quick looks, which are stored with the data files in the database. The data are all stored in network common data form (netCDF) format (available online at ) and comply with the Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata Convention version 1.4 (available online at ). The CDS has become operational in July 2009 and will be filled with many datasets from the operational continuous measurement program, measurements

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Dusanka Zupanski, Sara Q. Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Arthur Y. Hou, and Samson H. Cheung

1. Introduction Hydrological forecasts for floods and landslides often require precipitation information at finer space and time scales than those available from spaceborne microwave observations. Statistical approaches have been used commonly to merge and downscale precipitation observations ( Huffman et al. 2007 ). There is an emerging interest in using data assimilation techniques to extract information from multiple data sources, combining with high-resolution modeling to downscale

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

heavy rainfall events correspond with the intensified baiu front that causes flooding and serious damages to human life and properties. Early prediction and warning for heavy rainfall events are among the most important elements for minimizing damages. However, it has always been difficult to accurately forecast rainfall owing to imperfection of global models and observational errors. Development of a forecasting system for extreme events continues to be a challenging task in spite of recent rapid

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Scott E. Giangrande, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Terry Schuur, and Jasper A. Vrugt

temporal stability on hydrologic simulation are subjects addressed in the following section. 5. Hydrologic evaluation The second component of this study is an evaluation of KOUN precipitation estimators in the context as inputs to a distributed parameter hydrologic model. The primary focus is to answer: will polarimetric radar upgrades to the WSR-88D network improve hydrologic simulation and flash-flood forecasting? As in the previous section, R ( Z ) is the least biased when considering all events

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

1. Introduction Much progress has been made in the last decade in the study of orographic precipitation using high-resolution idealized and forecast models, case studies from field projects, and the analysis of radar and precipitation-gauge characteristics from multiseason datasets. Mountains more commonly modify and amplify precipitation associated with preexisting weather disturbances rather than solely initiating all the precipitation ( Smith 2006 ). For unblocked flow, the strength and

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Jian Zhang and Youcun Qi

been under real-time evaluations at several river forecast centers. One of the issues found with the NMQ radar-based precipitation product is the overestimation of precipitation associated with bright band (BB). The bright band is a layer of enhanced reflectivity due to melting of aggregated snow ( Fig. 1 ). The phenomenon has been recognized near the beginning of radar meteorology (e.g., Ryde 1947 ; Austin and Bemis 1950 ; Wexler and Atlas 1956 ; Lhermitte and Atlas 1963 ), and many recent

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Yudong Tian, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and John B. Eylander

. , Hsu K-L. , Gao X. , Gupta H. V. , Imam B. , and Braithwaite D. , 2000 : Evaluation of PERSIANN system satellite-based estimates of tropical rainfall. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 81 , 2035 – 2046 . 10.1175/1520-0477(2000)081<2035:EOPSSE>2.3.CO;2 Stokstad, E. , 1999 : Scarcity of rain, stream gages threatens forecasts. Science , 285 , 1199 – 1200 . 10.1126/science.285.5431.1199 Tian, Y. , Peters-Lidard C. D. , Choudhury B. J. , and Garcia M. , 2007 : Multitemporal

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Youcun Qi, Jian Zhang, Brian Kaney, Carrie Langston, and Kenneth Howard

vertical reflectivity profile. Preprints, 25th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Paris, France, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91–94 . Maddox, R. A. , Zhang J. , Gourley J. J. , and Howard K. W. , 2002 : Weather radar coverage over the contiguous United States . Wea. Forecasting , 17 , 927 – 934 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<0927:WRCOTC>2.0.CO;2 . Martner, B. E. , Yuter S. E. , White A. B. , Matrosov S. Y. , and Kingsmill D. E. , 2008 : Raindrop size distributions and rain

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