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Vinodkumar, A. Chandrasekar, K. Alapaty, and Dev Niyogi

1. Introduction The quality of an operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forecast depends significantly on the accuracy of the initial conditions specifications and also on the ability of the model to simulate well the atmospheric physical and dynamical processes. Data assimilation methods often provide for improved performance of these NWP models ( Kalnay 2003 ). Data assimilation methods combine available past as well as current meteorological observations in order to improve

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Young-Kwon Lim, Ming Cai, Eugenia Kalnay, and Liming Zhou

separating the surface temperature change signals due to global and regional forcings in the observed data. The basis of this study is the fact that the surface temperature change response to land vegetation types is not present in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis (NNR) surface data, and is only partially present in the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-40), while the station

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M. Baldi, G. A. Dalu, and R. A. Pielke Sr.

. Meteor. Soc. , 82 , 269 – 281 . Ziegler , C. L. , and E. N. Rasmussen , 1998 : The initiation of moist convection at the dryline: Forecasting issues from a case study perspective. Wea. Forecasting , 13 , 1106 – 1131 . Fig . 1. (a) Time lag t 0 between the diabatic source Q and the temperature perturbation δθ ω . (b) Downwind displacement x 0 of the diabatic temperature perturbation δθ λ (solid line); x Q displacement of the vertical velocity w Q in the SL (dashed line); x τ

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, M. Vertenstein, and C. S. B. Grimmond

Initiatives, and the University of Kansas, Center for Research. We thank three anonymous reviewers for comments leading to substantial improvements in the manuscript. REFERENCES Best , M. J. , 2006 : Progress towards better weather forecasts for city dwellers: From short range to climate change. Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 84 , 47 – 55 . Best , M. J. , C. S. B. Grimmond , and M. G. Villani , 2006 : Evaluation of the urban tile in MOSES using surface energy balance observations. Bound

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