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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

the Pacific wish to better understand and serve their communities and this includes finding alternative, and improved, methods of discussing climate variability and change and enhancing communication of climate products, including forecasts and warnings. This need was identified in Chambers et al. (2019) and in the Pacific Roadmap for Strengthened Climate Services 2017–26 ( Pacific Science Solutions 2017 ), and aligns with the Global Framework for Climate Services goal to improve the resilience

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Randy A. Peppler

“Indian Weather Forecasting, 1951. Topics include Indians of North America Folklore” contains the responses from 1951, but sadly does not contain Kerr’s 1951 letters to Indian leaders, and these have not been discovered. The 1951 responses are more numerous and contain richer content than those from 1950. Personal communication with an expert on Kerr’s Senate career, Anne Hodges Morgan, who authored the definitive research on his Senate career ( Morgan 1977 ), and Kerr’s surviving son, William G

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Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole, Moseki Ronald Motsholapheko, Barbara Ntombi Ngwenya, Olekae Thakadu, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, and Donald Letsholo Kgathi

extent to which climate variability has affected agricultural production in the Okavango Delta over the last 10 years and implications on climate change, 2) the types of local adaptation strategies adopted by rural households, 3) the extent to which farming households’ decision-making is guided by personal experience and scientific seasonal weather forecasts, and 4) the types of indigenous weather forecasting indicators used by households in the Okavango Delta. 2. Conceptual underpinning a. Climate

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Karen Pennesi

1. Introduction As droughts become more frequent in semiarid regions, meteorological agencies and traditional forecasters gain importance as local institutions working to increase resilience of rural communities under the stress of such climatic changes. Resilience refers to “the ability of communities to absorb external changes and stresses while maintaining the sustainability of their livelihoods” ( Adger et al. 2002 , p. 358). Among weather and climate forecasters, a common assumption is

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Savin S. Chand, Lynda E. Chambers, Mike Waiwai, Philip Malsale, and Elisabeth Thompson

1. Introduction Weather forecasting has been practiced by humans for millennia and is an aid to decision making under conditions of uncertainty. Early forecast decisions were made entirely with knowledge accumulated over generations of local observations. Even today, one does not have to be a trained meteorologist to be a forecaster. Indigenous farmers, for example, whose livelihoods directly depend on weather and climate, often monitor and predict weather and seasonal climate events through

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Mathew Alexander Stiller-Reeve, David B. Stephenson, and Thomas Spengler

the intended stakeholders. This alignment is sometimes elusive. Pennesi (2007) showed that different ways of defining the wet season in Brazil led to distrust in the official forecasts. Monsoon definitions also diverge in Bangladesh, where the people define the monsoon differently in different locations ( Stiller-Reeve et al. 2015 ). Furthermore, scientific narratives about when the monsoon starts also vary and depend on the scientific definition of the monsoon that is applied. There is still no

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Randy A. Peppler

is making it harder to plan. He said, “Weather plays a vital role in what you’re going to do. All the farmers would plant if they would know what the future was going to hold—are we going to have a drought this year or floods? It’s too unpredictable—we really don’t know—we can have an idea of what might take place, but it’s just a gamble.” He admitted that he may have to rely more on television weather to forecast. He added an interesting thought on taking control of nature: “It’s about taking

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Alison M. Meadow, Daniel B. Ferguson, Zack Guido, Alexandra Horangic, Gigi Owen, and Tamara Wall

.envsci.2012.12.016 . Bush, V. , 1960 : Science, the endless frontier: A report to the President on a program for postwar scientific research. 220 pp. [Available online at https://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/nsf50/vbush1945.htm .] Byerly, R. , and Pielke R. A. , 1995 : The changing ecology of United States science . Science , 269 , 1531 – 1532 , doi: 10.1126/science.269.5230.1531 . Carbone, G. J. , and Dow K. , 2005 : Water resource management and drought forecasts in South Carolina . J. Amer

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L. Jen Shaffer and Leocadia Naiene

may further bias model parameters, data input, and analysis. For example, Rayner (2003) found that U.S. water managers are reluctant to include new climate forecast data, despite improvements to decision-making ability, if it meant accepting increased responsibility and blame for water supply failure. Gendered aspects of livelihood activities and socially constructed roles, rights, and responsibilities strongly suggest differences in perceptions of and responses to climate changes as well

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Laurie Yung, Nicky Phear, Alayna DuPont, Jess Montag, and Daniel Murphy

, 29 – 33 , doi: 10.2111/1551-501X(2008)30[29:CCIONA]2.0.CO;2 . Cooney, C. , 2010 : The perception factor: Climate change gets personal . Environ. Health Perspect. , 118 , A484 – A489 , doi: 10.1289/ehp.118-a484 . Crane, T. , and Coauthors , 2010 : Forecast skill and farmers’ skills: Seasonal climate forecasts and agricultural risk management in the southeastern United States . Wea. Climate Soc. , 2 , 44 – 59 , doi: 10.1175/2009WCAS1006.1 . Gallup , 2015 : Gallup poll social series

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