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Tammy M. Weckwerth, John Hanesiak, James W. Wilson, Stanley B. Trier, Samuel K. Degelia, William A. Gallus Jr., Rita D. Roberts, and Xuguang Wang

Conceptual models of nocturnal convection initiation (NCI) are used to summarize past knowledge and new discoveries following the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign. Thorough understanding and accurate forecasting of the timing and location of U.S. Great Plains nocturnal convection initiation (NCI) remains a challenging goal. A primary reason is that NCI is often elevated with its source air from 900 to 600 hPa (e.g., Wilson and Roberts 2006 ) and typical observing

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Bart Geerts, David Parsons, Conrad L. Ziegler, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Michael I. Biggerstaff, Richard D. Clark, Michael C. Coniglio, Belay B. Demoz, Richard A. Ferrare, William A. Gallus Jr., Kevin Haghi, John M. Hanesiak, Petra M. Klein, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen Kosiba, Greg M. McFarquhar, James A. Moore, Amin R. Nehrir, Matthew D. Parker, James O. Pinto, Robert M. Rauber, Russ S. Schumacher, David D. Turner, Qing Wang, Xuguang Wang, Zhien Wang, and Joshua Wurman

evaluations of operational CPMs, reveal significant errors in CI timing and location ( Kain et al. 2013 ), system duration, and QPF, in particular during the night in the PECAN region, even over short forecast periods ( Pinto et al. 2015 ). Certain field campaigns such as IHOP ( Weckwerth et al. 2004 ), BAMEX ( Davis et al. 2004 ), and MPEX ( Weisman et al. 2015 ) collected tantalizing observations of relevance and motivation to PECAN, within the broader PECAN domain. However, IHOP focused on the daytime

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Kevin R. Haghi, Bart Geerts, Hristo G. Chipilski, Aaron Johnson, Samuel Degelia, David Imy, David B. Parsons, Rebecca D. Adams-Selin, David D. Turner, and Xuguang Wang

This article presents a survey of atmospheric bores, their role in the initiation and organization of deep convection, and a vision for improving the forecast of atmospheric bores and nocturnal convection through a multidisciplinary approach. On the afternoon of the 10 July 2015 in Hays, Kansas, during the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign ( Geerts et al. 2017 ), the bore group was selected to lead the evening’s intensive observation period (IOP). The PECAN forecasters

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