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Yonghe Liu, Jinming Feng, Zongliang Yang, Yonghong Hu, and Jianlin Li

technique to infer local information ( Sunyer et al. 2015a ) by statistically relating local variables to the GCM large-scale variables (LSV). Another technique is dynamical downscaling (DD) ( Bao et al. 2015 ; Castro et al. 2005 ), which is computationally expensive. Usually, DD can produce gridded simulations covering a region with visually realistic spatial patterns that imply spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation of precipitation, whereas SD mostly produces outputs at gauge sites and not

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Paloma Borque, Kirstin J. Harnos, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Greg M. McFarquhar

distribution (PSD) to perform accurate simulations and retrievals. In this work, a new parameterization for the ice-phase PSD based on aircraft measurements collected during the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Cold-Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) is developed. This new parameterization leverages the uncorrelated mass parameter PSD estimation technique developed by Williams et al. (2014) , as described below to eliminate a free parameter in assumed PSD characteristics, which can provide

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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, Daniel J. Cecil, and Qinghong Zhang

-00151.1 Dee , D. P. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 553 – 597 , doi: 10.1002/qj.828 . 10.1002/qj.828 Donavon , R. A. , and K. A. Jungbluth , 2007 : Evaluation of a technique for radar identification of large hail across the upper Midwest and central plains of the United States . Wea. Forecasting , 22 , 244 – 254 , doi: 10.1175/WAF1008.1 . 10.1175/WAF1008.1 Dworak , R

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Sarah D. Bang and Daniel J. Cecil

( Vivekanandan et al. 1991 ). Cecil (2009) put forth a technique to identify hail cores within convection using the 19-, 37-, and 85-GHz passive microwave channels from the passive microwave radiometer on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite [the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI)]. In both the 37- and 19-GHz channels, the likelihood of hail increased drastically with decreasing T b . The relationships between reported hail at the surface and microwave T b allowed Cecil (2009) to

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Mark Kulie, Lisa Milani, Stephen J. Munchak, Norman B. Wood, and Vincenzo Levizzani

observations. For version 05 of the GPROF algorithm, approximately 1 year of GPM observations are contained in the a priori database. To distinguish liquid precipitation from falling snow, the Sims and Liu (2015) technique is implemented that relies on the 2-m wet-bulb temperature (T2m). Acknowledging DPR’s limitations in estimating light precipitation and discovering that the high-frequency (166–183 GHz) channels of GMI show a response to this lighter precipitation in mid- and high latitudes, GPROF has

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Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Matthew Lebsock, and Mircea Grecu

are the AMSR-E precipitation product ( Kummerow et al. 2011 ), the GPCP One-Degree Daily precipitation product (GPCP-1DD; Huffman et al. 2001 ), and precipitation from two reanalyses: the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ) and the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2; Gelaro et al. 2017 ). The aim of this study is not to search for the best product but instead to diagnose specific

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Kamil Mroz, Alessandro Battaglia, Timothy J. Lang, Simone Tanelli, and Gian Franco Sacco

surface reference technique (SRT) would be 3.5 dB, marginally higher than 3 dB (i.e., a factor of 2), practically signaling that half of the footprint is fully attenuating and the other half is barely producing any attenuation. Because of 5 dB of attenuation produced by the snow-bearing column, the Ka SRT PIA adds up to 8.1 dB. Therefore, the ratio of the two path-integrated attenuations ( ) is equal to 2.3, which is well below the trigger NUBF detection threshold of 4. Therefore, this profile would

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004RS003129 . 10.1029/2004RS003129 Hou , A. Y. , and Coauthors , 2014 : The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 95 , 701 – 722 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00164.1 . 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00164.1 Kalina , E. A. , K. Friedrich , B. C. Motta , W. Deierling , G. T. Stano , and N. N. Rydell , 2016 : Colorado plowable hailstorms: Synoptic weather, radar, and lightning characteristics . Wea. Forecasting , 31

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