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Sid-Ahmed Boukabara, Vladimir Krasnopolsky, Jebb Q. Stewart, Eric S. Maddy, Narges Shahroudi, and Ross N. Hoffman

the model resolution, to extend the forecast horizon, and to increase ensemble size). Flexibility. ML techniques can accommodate (i) variables that have not been (and sometimes cannot be) included in physically based models, (ii) physical constrains (like conservation laws or balance equations), (iii) processes that are nonlinear, (iv) non-Gaussian observation errors, and (v) empirical data for processes for which the true physics is poorly understood ( Krasnopolsky 2013 ). Ease of use. Modern

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Sid-Ahmed Boukabara, Vladimir Krasnopolsky, Stephen G. Penny, Jebb Q. Stewart, Amy McGovern, David Hall, John E. Ten Hoeve, Jason Hickey, Hung-Lung Allen Huang, John K. Williams, Kayo Ide, Philippe Tissot, Sue Ellen Haupt, Kenneth S. Casey, Nikunj Oza, Alan J. Geer, Eric S. Maddy, and Ross N. Hoffman

observations and satellite applications, including the use of neural networks for NWP model parameterization ( Krasnopolsky et al. 2010 ) and using deep learning to infer missing data ( Boukabara et al. 2019a ). NCAR, a federally funded research and development center, has a long history of developing AI techniques for weather applications. Haupt et al. (2019) highlighted the Dynamic Integrated Forecast (DICast) system, a 20-year effort at NCAR that forms the “weather engine” of many applications, as

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Amy McGovern, Ryan Lagerquist, David John Gagne II, G. Eli Jergensen, Kimberly L. Elmore, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Travis Smith

-0242.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-15-0242.1 Bergthórsson , P. , and B. Döös , 1955 : Numerical weather map analysis . Tellus , 7 , 329 – 340 , . 10.3402/tellusa.v7i3.8902 Billet , J. , M. DeLisi , B. Smith , and C. Gates , 1997 : Use of regression techniques to predict hail size and the probability of large hail . Wea. Forecasting , 12 , 154 – 164 ,<0154:UORTTP>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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Imme Ebert-Uphoff and Kyle Hilburn

. In contrast the image-to-image translation models ( Figs. 1b,c ) generate as output an image, typically of the same dimension (but not necessarily the same number of channels) as the input image. Image-to-image translation models can be used to enhance remote sensing images ( Tsagkatakis et al. 2019 ), to detect changes in satellite imagery ( Peng et al. 2019 ), for precipitation forecasting ( Sønderby et al. 2020 ), for weather forecasting ( Weyn et al. 2020 ), to detect tropical and

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