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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

forecasting and hydrologic models ( Drusch 2007 ; Crow et al. 2005 ). Within GEWEX, water budgets have been analyzed at many different scales. Roads et al. (2003) focused on the Mississippi River basin using regional models and reanalysis products. Roads et al. (2002) applied similar techniques to intercompare the same variables for all of the primary CSEs. These and other studies show, not surprisingly, that water budgets can be closed with more certainty in areas with high density observations than

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

1. Introduction Many studies have focused on the adjustment of moisture and divergence analyses (e.g., Krishnamurti et al. 1984 , 1988 , 1991 ; Donner 1988 ; Heckley et al. 1990 ; Puri and Miller 1990 ; Puri and Davidson 1992 ; Aonashi 1993 ; Kasahara et al. 1994 ; Manobianco et al. 1994 ; Yap 1995 ; Treadon 1996 ) in order to improve precipitation forecasts. Some of these studies have used observed rain rates to directly adjust the moisture and diabatic heating profiles to

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Xi Chen, Yongqin David Chen, and Zhicai Zhang

resource managers, groundwater is represented as an infinitely large reservoir in which the slow-flow process is unlikely to play a significant role in the hydrological cycle at the time scales of regular human activities ( Duffy et al. 2006 ). As a result of the strong emphasis by water resources managers and decision makers recently put on integrated (i.e., large scale) and sustainable (i.e., long term) water resource management, integrated assessment and modeling techniques have increasingly gained

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