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T. Ghosh and T. N. Krishnamurti

. (2007) have studied ocean sonic-layer depth estimation by applying ANN techniques. Surface parameters were taken as input in their study. Forecasts of ceiling and visibility using ANN from surface observations and model output were studied by Marzban et al. (2007) . Sharma and Ali (2013) applied ANN to achieve high-resolution tropospheric temperature profiles using geostationary satellite observations. Sharma et al. (2013) have shown that the use of ANN for the prediction of cyclone intensity

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Russell L. Elsberry, Eric A. Hendricks, Christopher S. Velden, Michael M. Bell, Melinda Peng, Eleanor Casas, and Qingyun Zhao

utilize all of the forty 6-h AMV datasets to optimize the analysis technique that spreads the AMV information, and more fully demonstrates the impacts of the AMVs on the regional and global model forecasts. An important goal of these future studies will be to demonstrate that a global model forecast after 6 h can then provide the initial and lateral boundary conditions for the next dynamic initialization, and this cycling can be an end-to-end NWP application that fully utilizes the information content

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Robert L. Creasey and Russell L. Elsberry

vortex tilt and the radial and tangential wind structure. It will be productive to compare the vortex tilt (if any) in the initial conditions and forecasts of numerical models of the TCI-15 tropical cyclones. It may be challenging to incorporate these high temporal and spatial resolution HDSS observations in the numerical models. Perhaps our technique of creating layer-average wind direction and speed from overlapping 1-km layers may be useful for initializing those computer models that also

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Eric A. Hendricks, Russell L. Elsberry, Christopher S. Velden, Adam C. Jorgensen, Mary S. Jordan, and Robert L. Creasey

that among the Hendricks et al. (2010) environmental factors that best compared with the Joaquin intensity changes was the VWS from both the SHIPS and the CIMSS technique ( Gallina and Velden 2002 ; Velden and Sears 2014 ). Whereas the SHIPS simply takes the difference between the Global Forecast System (GFS) 200 and 850 hPa horizontal wind analyses, the CIMSS approach utilizes a local three-dimensional analysis of high-density, satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) to calculate

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