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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

midcold category is positive below 240 K and negative above. This suggests that continental convection tends to have more solid ice processes than oceanic. Also note that there are substantial positive and negative variations in other categories, but these are most likely due to land surface signals. To assess spatial variability, PCTb 85 probability distributions and MSI are computed for each 2° × 2.5° grid box to show the geographical distribution of ice scattering ( Fig. 3b ). MSI for the shallow

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F. Joseph Turk, R. Sikhakolli, P. Kirstetter, and S. L. Durden

be experienced during actual raining conditions is similar to the surface variability after a period antecedent precipitation. We are not attempting to estimate previous rainfall totals such as is done in Brocca et al. (2014) but rather to identify threshold conditions. A similar analysis is performed for the OSCAT backscatter cross sections during the same time period. It was noted that over certain surface types, a simple OSCAT time-change detection approach was capable of detecting locations

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Clément Guilloteau, Rémy Roca, and Marielle Gosset

used to compute mean diurnal cycles for the comparison with satellite data. Figure 9 shows 1-h mean diurnal cycles in terms of rain occurrence computed with TAPEER rain mask, CMORPH, GSMaP, and PERSIANN-CCS compared with AMMA-CATCH rain gauge networks ( section 2e ) in Niger and Benin. The mean diurnal cycles are computed for the July–September period for 2012–14. All products reproduce the main features of the mean diurnal cycle in both locations. TAPEER rain mask and GSMaP overestimate the

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Hamed Ashouri, Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Kuo-lin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Dan Braithwaite

products and their uncertainty quantification in ensemble discharge simulations . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 20 , 903 – 920 , doi: 10.5194/hess-20-903-2016 . Reed, S. , Schaake J. , and Zhang Z. , 2007 : A distributed hydrologic model and threshold frequency-based method for flash flood forecasting at ungauged locations . J. Hydrol. , 337 , 402 – 420 , doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.02.015 . Rossow, W. B. , and Schiffer R. A. , 1991 : ISCCP cloud data products . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc

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