Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 13 items for :

  • Geographic location/entity x
  • Meteorological Monographs x
  • All content x
Clear All
Baode Chen, Wen-wen Tung, and Michio Yanai

duct. The PKE budget analysis has further been used to diagnose the energetics of the intraseasonal variability and MJO in model simulations. Mu and Zhang (2006) examined the PKE budget in the modified NCAR CAM3, and pointed out that different mechanisms are responsible for the PKE production at different locations. Deng and Wu (2011) computed the PKE budget to delineate the physical processes that led to improved MJO simulations by a general circulation model. These studies demonstrated that

Full access
M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

100 sensors from 10 different institutes. In 1975, the National University of Ireland (Galway) established the Atmospheric Research station at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland. The major observatory has been used as a background baseline research station for over 50 years. (Aerosol measurements started in 1958 at a location nearby.) Figure 29-1 shows the geographical distribution of atmospheric observatories in Europe dedicated to aerosol, cloud, and trace gas monitoring. Figure 29

Full access
Yukari N. Takayabu, George N. Kiladis, and Victor Magaña

the pouch center as the preferred location for tropical cyclogenesis. Adopted from Wang et al. (2010) . Throughout the 1960s, Michio was thinking not only about the genesis of tropical storms but also about the genesis of the other equatorial disturbances that were becoming more evident in observational data. Nitta and Yanai (1969) suggested that the disturbances observed in rainfall in the Marshall Islands (9.00°N, 168.00°E) region were due to the barotropic instability of the easterly zonal

Full access
Robert A. Houze Jr.

meteorological structures on subsynoptic scales. It was in this way that he showed that a line of thunderstorms along or ahead of a cold front was not a kind of front in the sense of polar-front thinking, but rather a lining up of convective entities organized individually on the mesoscale. In today’s lexicon, we would say that he identified the MCS as the building block of the prefrontal or frontal squall line. As Fujita put it, “The mesosynoptic disturbances greatly influence the situation as viewed on the

Full access
Kazuyoshi Oouchi and Masaki Satoh

mechanisms can be at work. Such a geographical preference (e.g., over the Pacific warm water pool) and the origin of the existence of SCC from a more general standpoint remain big unanswered mysteries; this chapter attempts to provide a simple hypothesis on this. One of the long-standing interests in SCCs is that they involves features in common with the equatorial Kelvin wave ( Hayashi and Sumi 1986 ). The previous modeling and theoretical studies have provided substantial progress in clarifying the

Full access
Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

control with feedback to site operations for instrument maintenance and operations Data transmission to a central location for conversion to a standard format for distribution to science members and the archive, where it would be available to the general scientific community Data fully documented and archived in raw and processed form to facilitate reprocessing, if required, at later dates Routine acquisition of data from external sources, such as weather and sounding data from NWS, satellite data

Full access
Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

Richardson number Ri) strongly influences turbulent velocities, mixing depth, and wind speed profiles. The effects of vertical stability and winds are seen in Fig. 23-7 . Wind direction obviously has a major effect on the location of the major impacts. Knowledge of mesoscale wind variability within the geographic domain of interest is useful. Seldom are local wind observations available, and NWP model predictions may have large biases. For example, Fig. 23-8 shows two plumes released from different

Full access
David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

America, First World War, Treaty of Versailles, end of Second World War, and atomic era). Within this atmospheric continuum, we focus on extratropical cyclones, low pressure systems that are frequently born of and evolve with the jet stream, producing in some midlatitude locations as much as 85%–90% of the annual precipitation ( Hawcroft et al. 2012 ) and as many as 80% of extreme precipitation events ( Pfahl and Wernli 2012 ). Although extratropical anticyclones are the counterpart to extratropical

Full access
Greg M. McFarquhar, Darrel Baumgardner, Aaron Bansemer, Steven J. Abel, Jonathan Crosier, Jeff French, Phil Rosenberg, Alexei Korolev, Alfons Schwarzoenboeck, Delphine Leroy, Junshik Um, Wei Wu, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Cynthia Twohy, Andrew Detwiler, Paul Field, Andrea Neumann, Richard Cotton, Duncan Axisa, and Jiayin Dong

progress on understanding how cloud properties vary with geographical location and environmental conditions, a prerequisite for understanding cloud processes and improving the representation of these processes in weather and climate models. Processing algorithms for interpreting data from total water content and forward-scattering probes are more mature than for those for imaging probes. For heated sensors, estimating the dry-air term and removing baseline offsets are the largest uncertainties. For

Open access
Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

. These long regional datasets have been essential for understanding coastal processes, circulation, and fisheries. Autonomous sampling on moorings has begun to replace some of the aspects of these time series hydrographic stations and coastal observing systems, thus removing sampling/aliasing problems. The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) has implemented moorings in some of these long-sampled locations, including not only temperature and salinity, but also air–sea flux and biogeochemical sensors

Full access