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Edgar L Andreas

provided us with logistics support. Figure 1 shows how small Mount Desert Rock is and identifies the permanent structures there and the 2013 instrument locations. It is truly a desert island: its surface has no vegetation but is simply a rocky outcrop. From our survey (these numbers may differ from the NDBC information), the high point of the island is only 9.2 m above mean sea level; the lighthouse is 18 m tall. Prevailing winds at Mount Desert Rock in January are westerly and northwesterly. All

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Casey D. Burleyson, Zhe Feng, Samson M. Hagos, Jerome Fast, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Scot T. Martin

campaign, comparison between the T1–T3 sites and the T0 x sites (which were generally located to the north and east of the T1–T3 sites) has the potential to form the basis for determining the influence of Manaus on clouds, aerosols, and precipitation. Fig . 1. (a) Height above sea level from a U.S. Geological Survey 30″-resolution elevation dataset. The locations of the GoAmazon2014/5 sites are indicated by black and white symbols, and the locations of the four sample sites used for comparison are

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S. C. Pryor, R. C. Sullivan, and T. Wright

type. Dominant crop types in the counties in which the meteorological stations are located are provided in the second row from the USDA 2014 National Agricultural Statistics Service report ( ). Shown within the irrigated and nonirrigated stations blocks are their geographical location (lat and lon), elevation (m), and irrigation fetch Γ (s). Fig . 2. Percentage of total area in the county containing the ASOS stations under irrigation (and by

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Brian I. Magi, Thomas Winesett, and Daniel. J. Cecil

al. 2011 ), but those data were not as readily available. NLDN sensors detect the electromagnetic signals created by lightning, and using multiple sensors, the location of each lightning flash can be triangulated and flash rates can be calculated ( Orville 2008 ; Rudlosky and Fuelberg 2010 ). NLDN data have been evaluated to assess the flash and stroke detection efficiency, accuracy in the peak current associated with strokes, accuracy in the location of the strike, and accuracy of the

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Gert-Jan Duine, Thierry Hedde, Pierre Roubin, and Pierre Durand

axis is indicated by the red arrow pointing down valley. The locations of the 110-m-high tower GBA and the 30-m-high tower M30 are indicated. (c) A CV cross section along the line G–H given in (b) by the dashed line. The color scale represents the terrain elevation. Source: [institut national de l’information géographiques et forestière (IGN)]. Two measurement towers deployed during KASCADE are used in this study: the permanently installed 110-m-high tower at La Grande Bastide

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A. G. Griesser and C. M. Spillman

-central Pacific region. Black dots show locations of coral reefs ( ReefBase 2014 ). Red stars show three locations used for composite plots: A (0°, 190°E), B (0°, 150°E), and C (18°S, 148°E) ( Figs. 6 , 7 , and 8 , respectively). The island nations involved in the PACCSAP program were Timor-Leste, Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Marshall Islands, Nauru, Solomon Islands, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Cook Islands ( Fig. 1 ). These nations are very

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Matthew E. Jeglum and Sebastian W. Hoch

temperature exist near the surface because of differential heating of the land surface. These temperature differences hydrostatically produce pressure gradients, which in turn drive winds ( Defant 1949 ). For meso- β and smaller scales, these flows tend to have a low Rossby number and flow up or down terrain under the influence of the buoyancy force ( Zardi and Whiteman 2012 ). Such flows are referred to as thermally driven flows. In locations where these flows are particularly strong or synoptic

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Mark C. Green, Robert G. Flocchini, and Leonard O. Myrup

geographical regions, there is not only a difference in the absolutemagnitude of common climatic variables during anannual cycle, but also in the relative magnitudes amongthe sites. For example, average daily temperature isgenerally cooler in coastal locations than inland areasin the summer, but warmer in the winter. Precipitationalso shows a reversal, with coastal areas receiving moreprecipitation than interior desert areas in the winter,but less from summer thunderstorms. These exampleswill be further

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Jill D. Watts and Laurence S. Kalkstein

useful to implement an absolute meteorological determinant to add value to the HSI evaluation. For example, HSI values above 95% are not always associated with increased mortality. Therefore, a flexible threshold, based on geographic location and time of year, could be established if the HSI is used to issue heat watches and warnings. Because thresholds are unique to each application, they are best used as companions to the HSI rather than being incorporated into the HSI algorithm. The HSI is a work

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Jaeyeon Choi, Uran Chung, and Jin I. Yun

relationship between the warming trend and the growth of urban areas in Korea. Urban warming is often defined as the difference in temperature between a city and the surrounding rural area and is called urban heat island (UHI) intensity. The maximum UHI intensity in Korea ranges from 3.0° to 9.8°C, depending on season and geographic location ( Han et al. 1993 ; Yoon et al. 1994 ; Ryoo and Moon 1995 ; Kim and Baik 2002 ). There is a clear relationship between UHI intensity and population size ( Landsberg

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