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Seth P. Tuler, Thomas Webler, and Jason L. Rhoades

the efforts of governments and nongovernmental entities to manage stormwater and its impacts ( Funkhouser 2007 ; Hirschman et al. 2011 ; Zhou et al. 2012 ). For example, alterations in the seasonality, duration, form, and amount of precipitation can lead to different stormwater flows. For many North American communities, climate change and variability will likely mean an increased likelihood of flooding, although there will be regional variation ( Hirschman et al. 2011 ; Melillo et al. 2014

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Daniel B. Ferguson, Anna Masayesva, Alison M. Meadow, and Michael A. Crimmins

information messages into, within, and out of any definable entity; and b) determine the criteria by which the value of information messages will be judged.” We therefore focused on understanding what affects the circulation and use of information into, within, and out of the HDNR and tried to understand how that information will be seen as valuable or not within both the HDNR and with the broader tribal leadership. The goals for the interviews with non-HDNR drought stakeholders were 1) to better

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Laurie Yung, Nicky Phear, Alayna DuPont, Jess Montag, and Daniel Murphy

Abstract

Agricultural producers may be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts, such as drought. To better understand how ranchers respond to ongoing drought and the relationship between climate change beliefs and drought adaptation, in-depth interviews with working ranchers were conducted. Ranchers described drought conditions as unprecedented and detailed the interacting impacts of drought and nonclimatic stressors. They viewed adaptation as critical and employed a wide range of responses to drought, but lack of financial resources, risks associated with change, local social norms, and optimism about future moisture created barriers to change. Most ranchers attributed drought to natural cycles and were skeptical about anthropogenic climate change. Many ranchers likened current drought conditions to past droughts, concluding that conditions would return to “normal.” A belief in natural cycles provided a sense of hope for some ranchers but felt immutable to others, reducing their sense of agency and efficacy. Taken together, climate skepticism, optimism about future conditions, lack of financial resources, and a limited sense of agency might be reducing investments in long-term adaptation. However, the relationship between climate change beliefs and adaptation action was not entirely clear, since the handful of ranchers adapting in anticipation of long-term drought were skeptical or uncertain about anthropogenic climate change. Further, most ranchers characterized adaptation as an individual endeavor and resisted government involvement in drought adaptation. In the context of climate skepticism and antigovernment sentiment, strategies to scale up adaptation efforts beyond the household will only succeed to the extent that they build on local norms and ideologies.

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Joseph E. Trainor, Danielle Nagele, Brenda Philips, and Brittany Scott

tornado warning includes several key pieces of information, including a geographic area, a valid time, the duration, and text describing the potential hazard, its path, and advice for protective action. In current practice, local NWS warning forecast offices (WFOs) issue the initial tornado warning, and then the warning information is disseminated to the public through broadcast media, outdoor sirens, social media, call-out systems, word of mouth, texting, or phone calls. NWS, Red Cross, and Federal

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Jürgen Grieser and Francesca Terenzi

hazard intensity of event i at location n within its footprint. All property exposure that lies within the footprint area of an event gets hit by it. The damage that an event causes to a specific property at a given location, or an exposed subject at risk, depends on its structural characteristics represented by the specific vulnerability of this subject. The loss due to each individual event can be calculated if all the exposure hit by the event, the local intensity of the event at the

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Jagadish Thaker, Edward Maibach, Anthony Leiserowitz, Xiaoquan Zhao, and Peter Howe

geographic locale, ignored in a previous analysis, and with additional demographic control variables. 2. Literature review a. Collective efficacy: A conceptual analysis According to social cognitive theory ( Bandura 1997 ), human behavior is regulated by personal and social factors and is primarily driven by an individual’s self-efficacy, that is, the “beliefs in one’s capacity to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” ( Bandura 1997 , p. 3). Self

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Alexander Hall and Georgina Endfield

station and the site of the longest unbroken set of mountain temperature records in the United Kingdom. 1 Moreover, this area is the location of England’s only named wind, the Helm Wind, which many people, including artists, scholars, and scientists, Manley among them, have studied ( Veale et al. 2014 ). Even with such a long history of climatological interest, official meteorological snow records for the region are inconsistent, with only one nearby weather station, at Alston, maintaining a

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Edward R. Carr, Grant Fleming, and Tshibangu Kalala

climate forecasting for agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa . Exp. Agric. , 47 , 205 – 240 , doi: 10.1017/S0014479710000876 . Harris, L. M. , 2006 : Irrigation, gender, and social geographies of the changing waterscapes of southeastern Anatolia . Environ. Plann. , 24D , 187 – 213 , doi: 10.1068/d03k . Hu, Q. , and Coauthors , 2006 : Understanding farmers’ forecast use from their beliefs, values, social norms, and perceived obstacles . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 45 , 1190 – 1201 , doi

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Asher Siebert

regions farther east at the same latitude. A regional rainfall climatology map for 1979–2009 is shown in Fig. 1 from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Adler et al. 2003 ; Huffman et al. 2009 ). Fig . 1. Rainfall climatology map adapted from GPCP data. Approximate locations of Bamako, Mali, and Agadez, Niger, are shown. Temperatures in the Sahel are quite high all year round, and rainfall occurs in a unimodal rainy season during the boreal summer, whereas areas to the south

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Shannon M. McNeeley, Tyler A. Beeton, and Dennis S. Ojima

and livelihoods in the region. For example, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) leases grazing permits on public lands, the National Park Service (NPS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) manage fish and wildlife, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) manages resources on tribal reserved lands, and the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) (and BIA) manage reservoirs and water releases for agriculture. All of these DOI entities operate in shared drought-impacted landscapes that have multiple land

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