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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Camille M. Sultana, Olga Laskina, Jonathan Trueblood, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Kimberly A. Prather, Vicki Grassian, and Paul J. DeMott

from the heat treatment, and upon cooling, these coatings may be redistributed onto particles or even the suspension surface, leading to a higher proportion of particles coated with IN-active organics, or islands of IN-active monolayers on the surface of aliquots tested in the IS. For example, certain alcohols are known to stimulate ice nucleation as monolayers ( Gavish et al. 1990 ; Popovitz-Biro et al. 1991 , 1994 ; Qiu et al. 2017 ). Single-particle chemistry data, provided by an ATOFMS, in

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

understood as those for shallow clouds. It has been hypothesized that aerosols might suppress warm rain, which allows more cloud water being lifted higher in the atmosphere, where freezing of the larger amount of cloud water releases more latent heat and invigorates convection ( Rosenfeld et al. 2008 ). However, many modeling studies suggested that this thermodynamic invigoration is insignificant or even suppression of convection is seen, especially for clouds with cold cloud base, or strong wind shear

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

Shepherd (2005) , including 1) an increase in low-level convergence and convection from the higher surface roughness of urban areas; 2) a destabilization of the boundary layer from the urban heat island (UHI) effect, which can trigger localized circulations or UHI-generated convective clouds, and 3) higher aerosol concentrations over urban areas that increase the number of CCN and lifetime of clouds. Urban aerosol concentrations are typically higher than background aerosol concentrations because of

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