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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

; Johnson and Bryden 1989 ; Ivchenko et al. 1996 ; Marshall 1997 ; Gille 1997 ; Gille et al. 2001 ; Sprintall 2003 ). The Southern Ocean’s contribution to the climate system is mediated through air–sea heat fluxes. Air–sea heat fluxes are important because of their influence on water mass transformation and on the oceanic uptake of heat (e.g., Speer et al. 2000 ; Dong et al. 2007 ; Gille 2008 ). Despite the importance of surface fluxes, at present there is little agreement about the choice of

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Matthew R. Mazloff

1. Introduction The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the largest system of currents on earth. Driven largely by the westerly winds, the ACC carries and distributes nutrients, salt, and heat throughout the Southern Hemisphere ( Rintoul et al. 2001 ). The winds driving the ACC are highly variable and, in recent decades, have been increasing in strength ( Marshall 2003 ). How the wind drives the ACC is a matter of debate. Theoretical arguments have promoted the ACC transport being governed

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