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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

Island). Following the procedures in Johnson and Ciesielski (2000) , we also include several additional effects, which act in the direction to increase, albeit slightly, the diagnosed radiative cooling rate. They are: 1) the effects of mass sources and sinks resulting from precipitation and surface evaporation on the computation of vertical motion ( Trenberth 1991 ); 2) the sensible heat flux due to rain, which falls at the wet-bulb temperature ( Gosnell et al. 1995 ); and 3) frictional dissipation

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, and Merhala Thurai

) Islands, respectively ( Fig. 1 ). BR03 identified maritime and continental convective DSD “clusters,” as well as a linear variation of stratiform rain in the normalized gamma number concentration and median volume diameter [ N w ( D 0 )] plane, which can be measured by disdrometers or derived from dual-polarization radar data. Their work involved DSD quantities from selected rain events in Florida, coastal Australia, Austria, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Kwajalein, Colorado, Papua New Guinea, and the South

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

is balanced by adiabatic cooling of buoyant rising air (e.g., Riehl and Malkus 1958 ), and convection quickly redistributes moist static energy anomalies from the boundary layer throughout the troposphere to an equilibrium temperature profile. Neelin et al. (1987) and Emanuel (1987) developed quasi-equilibrium models with wind–evaporation or wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) to explain growth and eastward propagation of convective anomalies. In WISHE, evaporation from the ocean

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Kunio Yoneyama, Chidong Zhang, and Charles N. Long

(Manus and Gan Island) for the extended observing period (1 October 2011–31 March 2012). Littoral Air–Sea Process (LASP) emphasized observations of multiscale air–sea interaction processes in the Indian Ocean. The different stages of MJO initiation provide ideal contrasting large-scale background for studies of detailed multiscale air–sea interaction processes in the Indian Ocean. The 2011–12 MJO field campaign was designed to embrace complementary research interests. Many made critical scientific

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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

the upper-ocean heat content and SST, and thereby surface flux feedback. As part of the DYNAMO experiment conducted from boreal fall 2011 through early 2012 ( Yoneyama et al. 2013 ), a particularly well-instrumented measurement program was conducted at the equator and 80.5°E from the research vessel Roger Revelle ( Fig. 1 ) to make detailed observations of physical processes from 1 km below to 25 km above the sea surface. For as-yet-unknown reasons, the passage/occurrence of MJO convective

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Richard H. Johnson

indicated. Locations of the NCAR S-PolKa radar (Addu Atoll) and air–sea flux site (R/V Revelle ) are also indicated. A comprehensive set of quality-control techniques has been applied to the DYNAMO soundings, including mitigation of the low-level heat island and flow blocking effects in the Colombo soundings due to the large island of Sri Lanka ( Ciesielski et al. 2014a , b ). Following quality control, the sounding observations were horizontally interpolated onto a 1° mesh using the multiquadric

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Richard H. Johnson and Paul E. Ciesielski

part of soundings is often modified from the structure that exists over the adjacent open ocean. The Malé observation site was on Velana International Airport portion of Hulhule Island, a strip of land approximately 500 m wide and 3000 m long. The Gan observation site was on Addu Atoll, a much larger island with an enclosed shallow lagoon approximately 5 km across. The heat source represented by Addu Atoll clearly has the potential to influence the boundary layer properties given by the Gan

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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

. The NSA region is located just east of the Maldive Islands, which are known to influence the surface current and wave propagation in the equatorial Indian Ocean (e.g., Yoon 1981 ; Han et al. 1999 ; Han 2005 ). The Maldives are not resolved at our 40-km resolution grid, and this can influence the model–data comparison of the currents and SST in the NSA region. We will focus on the SST, heat flux, and convection during these two 5-day periods of the suppressed and active phases. A slight

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David M. Zermeño-Díaz, Chidong Zhang, Pavlos Kollias, and Heike Kalesse

Island in the western Pacific ( Long et al. 2013 ) provides unique long-term (1996–2014) observations from a suite of instruments, including vertically pointing cloud radars, radiosondes, rain gauges, and others. Data from Manus have been used to evaluate satellite observations ( Hollars et al. 2004 ) and model simulations ( Chen and Del Genio 2009 ) to estimate cloud radiative heating rates ( McFarlane et al. 2007 ; Mather and McFarlane 2009 ; Wang et al. 2010 ), and to document the cloud

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H. Bellenger, R. Wilson, J. L. Davison, J. P. Duvel, W. Xu, F. Lott, and M. Katsumata

/V Mirai , some of which have been noted by Kerns and Chen (2014) (between 30 November–1 December for Gan and 21–24 November for Diego Garcia and R/V Mirai ). To characterize turbulence over open ocean (i.e., with minimal land influence), we concentrate on observations obtained from ships and from very small and flat atoll islands. We also limit the ship dataset to stationary periods for simplicity (this impacts only marginally the number of soundings that are used). Table 1 summarizes observation

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