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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

previous studies presented in section 1 . There are potentially four factors that could invigorate deep convection over land: 1) amplified CAPE; 2) high surface sensible heat fluxes that lead to elevated cloud-base heights or the height of the lifting condensation level (HLCL), which then reduce warm cloud depth while also deepening the PBL depth and result in enhanced convective width and updraft velocity; 3) the thermal patch effect wherein islands or land-cover patterns enhance mesoscale pressure

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Hamed Ashouri, Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Kuo-lin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Dan Braithwaite

Community Earth System Model (CESM), PERSIANN-CDR was used as the “observation” precipitation. Luchetti et al. (2016) used PERSIANN-CDR in a NOAA–NASA collaborative project for updating the ENSO-based rainfall climatology for regions in Hawaii and U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands. With respect to the applicability of PERSIANN-CDR, the paper concludes that their results “solidified the ability of the high resolution PERSIANN-CDR to be more than adequate for use in long-term precipitation climatology

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

requirements. One of the better-known physically based precipitation retrieval techniques is the GPROF scheme, originally conceived by Kummerow and Giglio (1994) . The scheme was devised to provide not only an estimate of the surface precipitation, but also an estimate of latent heat release (among other parameters) from the vertical structure of the precipitation. In its purest form, the observed brightness temperatures (Tbs) are processed through inverse radiative transfer modeling to provide an

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