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Young-Kwon Lim, Robin M. Kovach, Steven Pawson, and Guillaume Vernieres

span the Maritime Continent and the eastern Indian Ocean region (e.g., Bay of Bengal; 60°–90°E) in the 1982/83 and 1997/98 El Niño events. We calculate diabatic temperature tendency (i.e., total diabatic heating or cooling; K day −1 ) across the equatorial longitude–vertical plane. The diabatic temperature tendency here is due to the multiple atmospheric processes that include moist, radiation, near-surface turbulence (e.g., sensible heat flux), and frictional dissipation of kinetic energy (e

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Laura M. Hinkelman

. Interpolated irradiance values are used when no clear-sky observations are available. In addition, an overall top-of-atmosphere imbalance of 6.5 W m −2 was found in an earlier version of the SYN1deg product (known at that time as SRBAVG-GEO). Since an imbalance of this size cannot be explained by the observed storage of heat by the Earth system, adjustments constrained by known product uncertainties were made to the TOA radiative fluxes to align them as much as possible with the observed heat storage

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Randal D. Koster

greatly influenced by geography, and the region is susceptible to different varieties of weather including hurricanes, extratropical cyclones, mesoscale systems, heat waves, and drought during the summer months. Mean climate features during JJA over the period 1980–2014 in MERRA-2 are shown in Fig. 1 . Temperature at 2 m tends to decrease with increasing latitude ( Fig. 1a ). Cooler temperatures over the ocean inhibit daytime warming along the coast and higher elevations associated with the

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, Lawrence Takacs, Andrea Molod, and David Mocko

amount to the moisture analysis increment forcing an amplification of the Walker circulation. Some large areas of very high moisture convergence occur over topography and island–coastal regions, also connected with large modeled precipitation amounts noted in Fig. 4 . This is an issue in the modeling system that will be addressed in future versions. Fig . 5. Global maps of the components of the MERRA-2 vertically integrated water cycle (mm day −1 ), time averaged over 1980 through 2014, using the

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow and Mark A. Miller

the atmosphere. It was also shown that some GCMs produce credible estimates of the net RFD and net CRE as a result of compensating errors. McFarlane et al. (2008) used observations made on the islands of Nauru and Manus in the tropical western Pacific to investigate the impact of clouds on SW radiation. McFarlane et al. (2008) reported that low clouds tend to increase SW radiative absorption in the column compared to clear skies and that mid- and high-level clouds can either increase or

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