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David A. R. Kristovich, Richard D. Clark, Jeffrey Frame, Bart Geerts, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen A. Kosiba, Neil F. Laird, Nicholas D. Metz, Justin R. Minder, Todd D. Sikora, W. James Steenburgh, Scott M. Steiger, Joshua Wurman, and George S. Young

some of the most intense snowstorms on Earth and observes a mean annual snowfall of over 700 cm, making it the snowiest region in the northeast United States ( Burt 2007 ; Veals and Steenburgh 2015 ). The OWLeS-Orographic component examines precipitation enhancement over Tug Hill during LLAP events. Field operations focused on an “orographic transect” of four observing stations in New York from the eastern shore of Lake Ontario to upper Tug Hill ( Fig. 1a ): 1) Sandy Island Beach on the east shore

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Justin R. Minder, Theodore W. Letcher, Leah S. Campbell, Peter G. Veals, and W. James Steenburgh

a relatively warm lake surface. If the lake–air temperature difference is sufficient, turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes moisten and destabilize the boundary layer, leading to the formation of shallow, but often intense, convective clouds and snowfall. Lake-effect convection exhibits multiple modes of mesoscale organization, including widespread cellular convection, widespread wind-parallel linear roll circulations, localized wind-parallel bands, and localized mesoscale vortices

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Scott M. Steiger, Tyler Kranz, and Theodore W. Letcher

typical organizations] occur when a continental/maritime polar (cP/mP) air mass is modified via heat and moisture fluxes by a large body of water (in this case, Lake Ontario), leading to the development of moist convection. The surface-based convective cloud tops generally range between 1 and 4 km above ground level (AGL), and the storms form in bands that are approximately 10–25 km wide and parallel to the mean boundary layer wind direction. b. Lake-effect lightning Winter lightning has been observed

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