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Steven J. Phipps, Helen V. McGregor, Joëlle Gergis, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Raphael Neukom, Samantha Stevenson, Duncan Ackerley, Josephine R. Brown, Matt J. Fischer, and Tas D. van Ommen

reflect the temporal resolution of the proxies from which they were derived. c. Coral δ 18 O The proxy dataset used as the basis for the second case study is the coral δ 18 O record from Palmyra Island (6°N, 162°W) in the central Pacific Ocean ( Cobb et al. 2003 ). This record is chosen for a number of reasons. First, as Palmyra Island lies in the tropics and only just outside the Niño-3.4 region (5°S–5°N, 170°–120°W), the local climate is dominated by ENSO. El Niño events bring warm wet conditions

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Howard J. Diamond, Andrew M. Lorrey, and James A. Renwick

1. Introduction a. Background The tropical southwest Pacific Ocean encompasses an area of about 10 million square nautical miles from ~135°E longitude in Australia’s Gulf of Carpentaria eastward to 120°W longitude and from the equator to 25°S. It includes part of the Maritime Continent, eastern Australia, New Zealand, and many small island nations and territories ( Fig. 1 ). In such a largely ocean-dominated region, tropical cyclones (TCs) are a primary cause of natural disasters and account

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Ailie J. E. Gallant, Steven J. Phipps, David J. Karoly, A. Brett Mullan, and Andrew M. Lorrey

then regressed against precipitation across the same domain, producing a precipitation reconstruction spanning AD 1631–2005. The second Australasian proxy record was the Agathis australis (kauri) tree-ring master chronology, generated from 196 trees at 14 sites in the northwest of the North Island of New Zealand ( Fowler et al. 2008 ). Nonclimatic trends were removed using a 200-yr spline. The kauri tree-ring width is responsive to local temperature and precipitation ( Buckley et al. 2000 ) but

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Michelle Ho, Danielle C. Verdon-Kidd, Anthony S. Kiem, and Russell N. Drysdale

correlations exist between the upper Murray catchment and PC4 and PC7 ( Fig. 3 ), suggesting that rainfall in the upper Murray is primarily influenced by Southern Ocean processes (e.g., cold fronts and cut-off lows that move across southern Australia; Pook et al. 2006 ). Significant correlations are also seen with PC2 and PC3, likely attributable to the moisture delivered via heat troughs running north–south across the MDB, a phenomenon that often occurs during summer ( Sturman and Tapper 2006 ), via the

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