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Alex S. Gardner, Martin J. Sharp, Roy M. Koerner, Claude Labine, Sarah Boon, Shawn J. Marshall, David O. Burgess, and David Lewis

the Greenland Ice Sheet and will have less impact on the sensible heat flux variability than was observed by Denby et al. (2002) . Summer mean daily wind speed and direction measurements from three weather stations located on JEG and three stations located on the Devon Island Ice Cap show an increase in the frequency of downslope (katabatic) winds at lower elevations, but neither transect shows an increase in mean wind speed at lower elevations or any consistent relationship between wind speed

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Martin Sharp and Libo Wang

regions is consistent with the pattern of sea surface temperatures in the region, because all three areas are characterized by northward penetration of relatively warm waters along their western margins and southward penetration of colder waters along their eastern margins. The positive correlation between latitude and melt duration in Severnaya Zemlya reflects the fact that the most southeasterly island in the group (Bolshevik Island) is under the influence of southward-flowing cool waters, while the

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Shawn J. Marshall and Martin J. Sharp

snow and ice melt as a function of air temperature ( Reeh 1991 ; Braithwaite 1995 ). Temperature-index models capitalize on the fact that air temperature is a strong indicator of net radiative and sensible heat energy available for melting ( Ohmura 2001 ). These models are widely used for mass balance calculations in ice sheet studies ( Letréguilly et al. 1991 ; Huybrechts et al. 1991 ; Pollard and Thompson 1997 ; Fabre et al. 1996 ; Huybrechts 2000; Hanna et al. 2005 ). Meltwater generated

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Stephen D. Griffiths and W. Richard Peltier

eastward-traveling wave, with the coast on the right (left) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. As explained in our recent study ( Griffiths and Peltier 2008 ), this tide is made possible at LGM by the disappearance of the Barents Sea, the closure of the Bering Strait, and the elimination of the shallow seas around the Queen Elizabeth Islands, transforming the Arctic Ocean to a basinlike configuration. This alone does not guarantee a large-amplitude tide. However, the LGM Arctic Basin is near to

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Michael S. Pritchard, Andrew B. G. Bush, and Shawn J. Marshall

and Clarke (1997) and Marshall et al. (2002) . Briefly, the model employs a set of rheologically constrained conservation equations for energy, mass, and momentum in order to simulate the large-scale diffusion of mass ( Mahaffy 1976 ) and heat ( Jenssen 1977 ) within the ice sheet. The ice flows according to viscous creep dynamics (neglecting the effects of longitudinal stresses), with a parameterization for basal sliding, introduced as a basal boundary condition and activated when the ice is

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