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Eric D. Maloney, Andrew Gettelman, Yi Ming, J. David Neelin, Daniel Barrie, Annarita Mariotti, C.-C. Chen, Danielle R. B. Coleman, Yi-Hung Kuo, Bohar Singh, H. Annamalai, Alexis Berg, James F. Booth, Suzana J. Camargo, Aiguo Dai, Alex Gonzalez, Jan Hafner, Xianan Jiang, Xianwen Jing, Daehyun Kim, Arun Kumar, Yumin Moon, Catherine M. Naud, Adam H. Sobel, Kentaroh Suzuki, Fuchang Wang, Junhong Wang, Allison A. Wing, Xiaobiao Xu, and Ming Zhao

southward-flowing lower limbs, is responsible for large oceanic transport of heat and freshwater, thus playing a fundamental role in establishing the mean state and the variability of the climate system. The focus on diagnosing AMOC in climate models has been mostly on the magnitude or the volume transport of the circulation (e.g., Cheng et al. 2013 ; Collins et al. 2013 ) and the role of water properties has been less quantified. In an AMOC structure POD, we examine the water properties of the AMOC

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Fiaz Ahmed and J. David Neelin

in environmental air and reach the freezing level, the subsequent buoyancy increases offered by the latent heat of fusion and smaller stratification in the upper troposphere will lead to strong precipitation. The tropical precipitation–moisture relationship is therefore primarily viewed as a precipitation–buoyancy relationship arising from the strong increase in convective rain. This buoyancy-centric view, however, does not directly account for frontal precipitation or stratiform rain ( Houze

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