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Syed Ismail, Richard A. Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, Gao Chen, Bruce Anderson, Susan A. Kooi, Anthony Notari, Carolyn F. Butler, Sharon Burton, Marta Fenn, Jason P. Dunion, Gerry Heymsfield, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Mrinal K. Biswas

1. Introduction The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aircraft (NASA DC-8) component of the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) field experiment was conducted from Sal Island, Cape Verde, from 15 August to 12 September 2006 ( Zipser et al. 2009 ). The main objectives of the NAMMA mission were to examine the formation and evolution of tropical cyclones (TCs), establish the composition and structure of the Saharan air layer (SAL), and assess SAL affects on

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Joël Arnault and Frank Roux

disturbance left the West African coast. The interaction between AEWs and convection has also been investigated quantitatively with the L55 energetic analysis in several idealized case studies (e.g., Thorncroft 1995 ) and realistic simulations (e.g., Hsieh and Cook 2007 ). These authors found that the latent heat released by convection increases the baroclinic growth of AEWs, but they did not separate the developing cases from the nondeveloping ones. Using composite statistics on a 60-yr National

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R. A. Hansell, S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, N. C. Hsu, M. J. Jeong, S. H. Wang, J. S. Reid, K. N. Liou, and S. C. Ou

important implications for their potential to modulate the heat and moisture surface budgets ( Solomon et al. 2007 ), surface–air exchange processes, and the general circulation of the atmosphere (e.g., Lau et al. 2006 ). It is necessary to understand these regional effects before a comprehensive understanding of its global-scale impact can be achieved. In this paper, the DRE LW of airborne mineral dust during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) 2006 field campaign is

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Edward K. Vizy and Kerry H. Cook

1. Introduction During the period from 18 to 23 August 2006, two African easterly waves (AEWs) moved westward off the West African coast over the eastern Atlantic. The first wave, which originated over central Africa approximately 4 days earlier, left the coast on 18 August 2006 as a relatively strong wave but did not develop into Hurricane Ernesto until reaching the windward islands of the Caribbean on 24 August 2006. The second wave, which originated over West Africa as a weak wave, left the

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