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Shaocheng Xie, Timothy Hume, Christian Jakob, Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, and Minghua Zhang

1. Introduction The large-scale state of the tropical atmosphere as characterized by low-level convergence and advective cooling and moistening plays an important role in destabilizing the atmospheric structure, initiating and maintaining deep convection. On the other hand, latent heating released from tropical convective systems is a major energy source for the large-scale circulation. By releasing latent heat and vertically redistributing sensible heat and water vapor, cumulus clouds modify

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Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Nagio Hirota

ITCZ. Wu (2003) investigated the circulation driven by deep heating and shallow congestus heating by linear equations and a dry primitive equation model, and he showed that low-level moisture convergence driven by shallow congestus heating is 5 times larger than the deep heating of the same amount and exceeds the value to maintain the heat source. On the other hand, moisture convergence associated with deep heating is not efficient enough to sustain the heating. He estimated about 24% of the

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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Masaki Katsumata, Shuichi Mori, Sinsuke Satoh, Yuki Hirose, and Hiroaki Ueda

1. Introduction The global distribution of precipitation is related to water circulation in the climate system and to latent heating (LH) in the atmosphere, which is an important heat source driving atmospheric circulation ( Nigam et al. 2000 ). Characteristics of precipitation change greatly over a wide spectrum according to precipitation type and surface and atmospheric conditions. Satellite observations of clouds have provided useful but indirect information on precipitation. Precipitation

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

1. Introduction The release of latent heating (LH) during the formation of precipitation is of immense consequence to the nature of large- and small-scale atmospheric circulations, particularly in the tropics where various large-scale tropical modes controlled by LH persist and vary on a global scale. Latent heat release and its variations are without doubt the most important diabatic processes within the atmosphere, and thus play a central role in the earth’s water cycle. Latent heating is

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

1. Introduction The latent heat released or consumed during phase changes of water substance is a major component of the atmospheric energy budget, and one that dominates other diabatic processes in the deep tropics (see Newell et al. 1969 ; Schaack et al. 1990 ). Latent heating is also responsible for the creation of available potential energy, one mechanism by which convective clouds can interact with the larger-scale atmospheric circulations of their environment ( Nitta 1970 , 1972

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