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Tobias Kremer, Elmar Schömer, Christian Euler, and Michael Riemer

and start to transition into midlatitude cyclones ( Jones et al. 2003 ; Evans et al. 2017 ). An ET case therefore appears to be a well-suited testbed to demonstrate the applicability of our clustering approach. In addition, our clustering results can be compared with results of a previous study that has investigated the ET of Karl focusing on airstreams associated with latent heat release near the inner core ( Euler et al. 2019 ). In the current study, however, we will consider the more general

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Christian Euler, Michael Riemer, Tobias Kremer, and Elmar Schömer

associated with latent heat release there. The motivation to focus on inner-core latent heat release is twofold. First, the intrusion of environmental air with lower moist entropy into the inner-core convection, so-called ventilation, is one important mechanism that affects TC intensity in vertical shear (e.g., Tang and Emanuel 2010 ). Different pathways of ventilation have been demonstrated in the literature (e.g., Simpson and Riehl 1958 ; Frank and Ritchie 2001 ; Riemer et al. 2010 ; Gu et al

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Roderick van der Linden, Andreas H. Fink, Joaquim G. Pinto, and Tan Phan-Van

Hydrometeorological Service (NHMS; NHMS 2015, unpublished data). Precipitation measurements were provided at daily resolution (1200–1200 UTC, i.e., 1900–1900 LT) for 44 stations that are located in Quang Ninh Province and the adjacent area ( Fig. 1 ). NHMS also provided hourly rainfall measurements for four coastal and one island station in Quang Ninh Province ( Fig. 1 and Table 1 ). For a classification of the event in terms of its statistical extraordinariness, historical daily time series for these five

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Andreas Schäfler, George Craig, Heini Wernli, Philippe Arbogast, James D. Doyle, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, John Methven, Gwendal Rivière, Felix Ament, Maxi Boettcher, Martina Bramberger, Quitterie Cazenave, Richard Cotton, Susanne Crewell, Julien Delanoë, Andreas Dörnbrack, André Ehrlich, Florian Ewald, Andreas Fix, Christian M. Grams, Suzanne L. Gray, Hans Grob, Silke Groß, Martin Hagen, Ben Harvey, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Christian Lemmerz, Oliver Lux, Linus Magnusson, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Richard Moore, Jacques Pelon, Julian Quinting, Stephan Rahm, Markus Rapp, Marc Rautenhaus, Oliver Reitebuch, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Harald Sodemann, Thomas Spengler, Geraint Vaughan, Manfred Wendisch, Martin Wirth, Benjamin Witschas, Kevin Wolf, and Tobias Zinner

these observations to be related to the development of weather forecast errors, NAWDEX employed four research aircraft and ground-based stations spanning the northern part of the North Atlantic with the aim of observing the processes influencing the development of disturbances to the North Atlantic waveguide across the Atlantic. This includes upstream triggering of disturbances on the waveguide by phenomena with strong latent heat release, the continuous effects of clouds and radiation near the

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