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Beata Latos, Thierry Lefort, Maria K. Flatau, Piotr J. Flatau, Donaldi S. Permana, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Jaka A. I. Paski, Erwin Makmur, Eko Sulystyo, Philippe Peyrillé, Zhe Feng, Adrian J. Matthews, and Jerome M. Schmidt

domain around southwest Sulawesi shown in Fig. 2 . Indonesia constitutes the largest part of the Maritime Continent (MC), an area of ocean and islands within the Indo-Pacific warm pool in Southeast Asia, which represents the largest area of very high sea surface temperatures on Earth. It is a major center of atmospheric convection accompanied by significant latent heat release ( Ramage 1968 ; Simpson et al. 1993 ). The combination of land and ocean areas with local and large-scale drivers of

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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). A hindcast run was forced with the ECMWF wind stress and heat flux between 1990 and 2001. More detailed description of model configuration can be found in Wang and Yuan (2015) . We extracted equatorial waves by decomposing the results of the hindcast experiment. The wave decomposition method has been explained in Yuan et al. (2004) . The three-dimensional pressure and zonal velocity of the OGCM were projected onto the baroclinic vertical

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

Tasman Sea or possibly farther east. Therefore, neither the energy budget nor that mass budget is closed for each ocean alone, and the amount of heat transported depends upon the reference value. Godfrey (1996) provided a nice summary of the state of knowledge of the ITF based upon fragmentary data and highlighted the role of the warm volume transport between the various Indonesian islands that amounted to a net heat transport, updated by Sprintall et al. (2014) and Gordon et al. (2019) . The

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

al. 2014 ; Wang et al. 2014 ; Peatman et al. 2015 ). A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to describe the effect of the MC on the MJO. Some studies suggest that the MC weakens the convection and delays the propagation of the MJO. First, orography can block the eastward propagation of the low-level Kelvin wave signals embedded in the MJO ( Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ; Zhang and Ling 2017 ). Second, the island masses might weaken the air–sea interaction

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Hironari Kanamori, Tomo’omi Kumagai, Hatsuki Fujinami, Tetsuya Hiyama, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

). Convective cloud systems over the MC release considerable latent heat that constitutes a major component of the atmospheric heat budget. In addition, thermal land–sea contrasts associated with the major islands in this warm ocean environment generate complex local circulations that play important roles in both the energy cycle and the hydrologic cycle of the MC ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). Temporal variations in convection and precipitation exhibit pronounced diurnal and intraseasonal variabilities, and

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle is the leading mode of rainfall variability in many regions of the world, particularly in tropical islands and in continental regions adjacent to warm waters ( Dai 2001 ; Ohsawa et al. 2001 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Nesbitt and Zipser 2003 ; Yang and Smith 2006 ; Kikuchi and Wang 2008 ; Johnson 2011 ; Ruppert et al. 2013 ; Chen et al. 2016 ). The Maritime Continent (MC) is exemplary for this, where prominent land–sea breeze

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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

1. Introduction The island of Sumatra sits at the western edge of the Maritime Continent, an area situated between the Indian and Pacific Oceans which also includes the Malay Peninsula and large islands, such as Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, New Guinea, and the Philippines, as well as a galaxy of smaller islands. The combination of easterly trade winds over the tropical Pacific Ocean and the relatively shallow seabeds between many of the islands makes the waters around the Maritime Continent some of

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Ching-Shu Hung and Chung-Hsiung Sui

convection is made more sensitive to environmental moisture ( Hannah and Maloney 2011 ) and become weaker when cloud–radiative interaction is turned off ( Andersen and Kuang 2012 ; Crueger and Stevens 2015 ). The one-dimensional modeling study by Hu and Randall (1994) has demonstrated that the interactions among radiation, convection, and surface turbulent fluxes can set up an oscillating diabatic heat source with a period similar to that of the observed MJO, and the time scale of this oscillation is

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

, and larger heights than other vegetation types. Therefore, converting rain forest into bare ground or grassland has three major effects on land surface conditions: 1) a reduction in evapotranspiration, 2) an increase in surface albedo, and 3) a decrease in surface roughness. The reduction in evapotranspiration decreases the surface latent heat flux and leads to a surface warming effect. The decrease in roughness reduces the aerodynamic exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere. Furthermore

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC) plays an important role as a heat and moisture source that can impact global circulation and modulate planetary-scale variability ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). However, despite its importance, large errors are commonly found in the MC region in global and regional climate and weather models (e.g., Gianotti et al. 2012 ; Holloway et al. 2012 ; Nguyen et al. 2015 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2012 ; and others). One likely source of these errors arises from the

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