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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

Tasman Sea or possibly farther east. Therefore, neither the energy budget nor that mass budget is closed for each ocean alone, and the amount of heat transported depends upon the reference value. Godfrey (1996) provided a nice summary of the state of knowledge of the ITF based upon fragmentary data and highlighted the role of the warm volume transport between the various Indonesian islands that amounted to a net heat transport, updated by Sprintall et al. (2014) and Gordon et al. (2019) . The

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

al. 2014 ; Wang et al. 2014 ; Peatman et al. 2015 ). A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to describe the effect of the MC on the MJO. Some studies suggest that the MC weakens the convection and delays the propagation of the MJO. First, orography can block the eastward propagation of the low-level Kelvin wave signals embedded in the MJO ( Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ; Zhang and Ling 2017 ). Second, the island masses might weaken the air–sea interaction

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Ching-Shu Hung and Chung-Hsiung Sui

convection is made more sensitive to environmental moisture ( Hannah and Maloney 2011 ) and become weaker when cloud–radiative interaction is turned off ( Andersen and Kuang 2012 ; Crueger and Stevens 2015 ). The one-dimensional modeling study by Hu and Randall (1994) has demonstrated that the interactions among radiation, convection, and surface turbulent fluxes can set up an oscillating diabatic heat source with a period similar to that of the observed MJO, and the time scale of this oscillation is

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

, and larger heights than other vegetation types. Therefore, converting rain forest into bare ground or grassland has three major effects on land surface conditions: 1) a reduction in evapotranspiration, 2) an increase in surface albedo, and 3) a decrease in surface roughness. The reduction in evapotranspiration decreases the surface latent heat flux and leads to a surface warming effect. The decrease in roughness reduces the aerodynamic exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere. Furthermore

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC) plays an important role as a heat and moisture source that can impact global circulation and modulate planetary-scale variability ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). However, despite its importance, large errors are commonly found in the MC region in global and regional climate and weather models (e.g., Gianotti et al. 2012 ; Holloway et al. 2012 ; Nguyen et al. 2015 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2012 ; and others). One likely source of these errors arises from the

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Casey D. Burleyson, Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Brandon W. J. Kerns, and Daehyun Kim

) and Sobel et al. (2008) highlighted the importance of surface latent heat fluxes under the main convective envelope of the MJO. In their proposed framework, the islands of the MC limit the overall latent heat fluxes and thus the MJO weakens. Under the moisture mode theoretical framework of the MJO ( Raymond 2001 ; Sobel and Maloney 2012 , 2013 ; Adames and Kim 2016 ) in which the propagation is facilitated by horizontal moist static energy (MSE) advection (positive MSE advection east of the

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC; Fig. 1 ) is an archipelago formed by thousands of islands between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans and spanning 15°S–15°N. It features complex and steep topography, one of the warmest oceans in the world, densely vegetated land, and very intense and frequent convective activity. These elements combined generate specific precipitation characteristics that are highly challenging in terms of atmospheric modeling, of which the most prominent is probably

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

1. Introduction The South China Sea (SCS) and Maritime Continent (MC) regions are located at the center of the Indo-Pacific warm pool. This region is at the heart of the rising branch of both the Hadley circulation and Walker circulation and is also the critical pathway of the Asian–Australian monsoon system ( Chang et al. 2005 ). Convection over MC provides the heat source for driving the extratropical circulation ( Ramage 1968 ; Neale and Slingo 2003 ), and through teleconnections it can

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Chidong Zhang and Jian Ling

model capability of subseasonal prediction. Several possible reasons for the MC barrier effect on MJO propagation have been suggested. If surface fluxes, especially latent heat flux, are important to the MJO ( Maloney and Sobel 2004 ; Sobel et al. 2008 ), then the MJO would be weakened or diminished by the reduction in surface fluxes in the MC region because of its many islands. If moisture convergence of the low-level circulation is essential to the MJO ( Wang 1988 ; 2005 ), then its distortion

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Jian Ling, Yuqing Zhao, and Guiwan Chen

forecast systems than its global reanalysis. Wang et al. (2019) found that prediction skill for MJO convection is lowest when it is over the MC during boreal winter in most WMO/subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) models. Several possible reasons were proposed to explain the MC barrier effect on MJO propagation. They include the reduced surface flux due to the islands of the MC ( Maloney and Sobel 2004 ; Sobel et al. 2008 ), distorted low-level circulation by topography ( Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Inness and

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