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Kyle Chudler, Weixin Xu, and Steven A. Rutledge

systems. Mapes et al. (2003) proposed a gravity wave mechanism to explain rainfall adjacent to landmasses. They argued that daytime heating over the land expands the boundary layer, causing gravity waves to propagate away from the disturbed region. These gravity waves lead to destabilization over the adjacent waters thereby supporting convection. This was also the mechanism offered by Yokoi et al. (2017) to explain the offshore movement of convection observed near the island of Sumatra during the

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

) presented field observations that showed an extremely regular diurnal cycle over both land and ocean near Borneo. Across the MC region, differential daytime heating between land and water due to the difference in heat capacity leads to sea-breeze circulations that converge near the center of the islands, and combine with mountain–valley breezes to enhance convection over mountains ( Qian 2008 ). Cells begin to merge and organize, particularly over larger islands, leading to a late afternoon peak in

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

1. Introduction The South China Sea (SCS) and Maritime Continent (MC) regions are located at the center of the Indo-Pacific warm pool. This region is at the heart of the rising branch of both the Hadley circulation and Walker circulation and is also the critical pathway of the Asian–Australian monsoon system ( Chang et al. 2005 ). Convection over MC provides the heat source for driving the extratropical circulation ( Ramage 1968 ; Neale and Slingo 2003 ), and through teleconnections it can

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

1. Introduction Tropical intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) are 30–90-day modes of tropical convection that generally initiate in the Indian Ocean ( Zhang 2005 ; Lee et al. 2013 ). During the boreal winter, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant tropical ISO with convection propagating predominantly eastward over the Maritime Continent (MC) and waning in the central Pacific ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ). The MC includes the water and islands in the area of 10°S–20°N, 90

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat and moisture budgets . J. Atmos. Sci. , 30 , 611 – 627 ,<0611:DOBPOT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1973)030<0611:DOBPOT>2.0.CO;2 Yokoi , S. , S. Mori , M. Katsumata , B. Geng , K. Yasunaga , F. Syamsudin , Nurhayati , and K. Yoneyama , 2017 : Diurnal cycle of precipitation observed in the western coastal area of Sumatra Island: Offshore preconditioning by gravity

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