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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman

formed by low-level flow over and around the small island when a heat island occurs because of solar heating of the center of the island, where the phosphate has been removed, leaving mostly bare ground ( Savijarvi and Matthews 2004 ). The downstream cloud street is maintained through a pair of island-generated vortices maintained by the convection that occurs between them ( Matthews et al. 2007 ) and does have some impact on the ARM site measurements. The evidence of the Nauru cloud street prompted

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, and Thomas M. Rickenbach

melting rates, respectively; q is the water vapor mixing ratio; is the dry static energy; Q 1 is the apparent heat source; Q 2 is the apparent moisture sink; Q R is the net radiative heating rate; L υ and L f are the latent heats of vaporization and fusion, respectively; the overbar refers to a horizontal average; and the primes denote a deviation from this average. Yanai et al. (1973) used 1956 Marshall Islands sounding data to compute Q 1 and Q 2 and then applied a simplified

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Larry K. Berg and Peter J. Lamb

1. Setting the research agenda It is well known that the exchange of heat and moisture between the surface and atmosphere plays a key role in the earth’s climate system (e.g., Randall et al. 2007 ). Science questions related to land–atmosphere interactions have remained an active topic of research, both inside and outside of the ARM Program, for a considerable period of time (e.g., Betts et al. 1996 ; Betts 2003 , 2004 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2006 ; Betts 2009 ; Santanello et al. 2009 ; Betts

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Steven K. Esbensen, Jan-Hwa Chu, Wen-wen Tung, and Robert G. Fovell

on fundamental physical laws. They became aware that the difference between Q 1 and Q 2 is a measure of eddy vertical transport of total heat, and thus it contains information about cumulus activity. Yanai started work on the diagnostic scheme immediately. On 18 November 1970, he prepared a table of all upper-air stations in the Marshall Islands that participated in a special observation program in 1956 in support of nuclear tests (Operation Redwing, Joint Task Force Seven). From the data

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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

understanding of the complexities of physical processes involved in lake breeze evolution, with particular emphasis on smaller-scale features, such as strengthening areas along sea-breeze fronts as they approached the more stagnant, warmer areas in the urban heat island (UHI, discussed in section 5 ; e.g., Yoshikado 1990 , 1992 ), internal wind and convection variations due to nonstraight coastlines (e.g., Fig. 19-4 ; Laird et al. 1995 ) and inland variations in surface heating, resulting in the

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Ronald B. Smith

histogram in cumulus clouds over the tropical island of Dominica under low- and high-wind conditions. Under low-wind conditions, air entering the cloud has picked up aerosol from the island surface, increasing droplet number and reducing droplet size. [From Nugent et al. (2016 ).] 3) Convective versus stratiform clouds The distinction between OP from convective versus stratiform clouds is a fundamental one ( Houze 2012 ). In cold climates with little latent heat release and/or with a moist statically

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

1838–42 ( Wilkes 1845a , b ), followed by the lesser-known U.S. North Pacific Exploring and Surveying Expedition (Ringgold–Rodgers Expedition) of 1853–56 ( Ringgold and Rodgers 1950 ; U.S. National Archives 1964 ), both U.S. Navy expeditions. The U.S. Navy, often with private support, contributed to the search for the missing British expedition of Sir John Franklin in the Arctic islands north of Canada, and to a number of other early explorations along the west coast of Greenland. These efforts

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

early discussions of a movable facility were relatively unstructured because the program had not yet developed a working permanent site. By 2000, the perception of this problem had been altered radically by ARM’s participation in the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA; Uttal et al. 2002 ; Verlinde et al. 2016 , chapter 8) experiment during 1997–98, and by the work of the Pennsylvania State University TWP group, which had been responsible for conducting ARM science using the TWP site

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

the natural one. UCAs in the United States are apparent in the Northeast (from Washington, D.C., to Boston, Massachusetts), the Interstate Highway 35 (I-35) Texas corridor, and the Florida peninsula. Johnson and Shepherd (2018) have revealed how the distribution of frozen precipitation in the Northeastern corridor is affected by the urban heat islands within this particular UCA. Shepherd (2013) pointed out that such systems of urbanization can modify precipitation, land surface hydrological

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W.-K. Tao, Y. N. Takayabu, S. Lang, S. Shige, W. Olson, A. Hou, G. Skofronick-Jackson, X. Jiang, C. Zhang, W. Lau, T. Krishnamurti, D. Waliser, M. Grecu, P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, R. Houze, R. Kakar, K. Nakamura, S. Braun, S. Hagos, R. Oki, and A. Bhardwaj

1. Introduction Release of latent heat during precipitation formation is of immense consequence to the nature of large- and small-scale atmospheric circulations, particularly in the tropics where various large-scale tropical modes dominated by latent heating (LH) persist and vary on a global scale. Latent heat release and its variation are without doubt some of the most important physical processes within the atmosphere and thus play a central role in Earth’s water and energy cycle. The launch

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