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Ji-Young Han and Jong-Jin Baik

examination of summer-season daily precipitation data from 1953 to 2002 for a network of 30 stations in the southeastern United States, Diem and Mote (2005) indicated that precipitation within and downwind of urbanized Atlanta, Georgia, may have been enhanced by urban effects. More observational studies of urban-induced precipitation are summarized in a review paper by Shepherd (2005) . The causes for urban-induced or urban-modified convective phenomena are proposed, which include the urban heat island

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Hiroshi Niino, Atsushi Mori, Takehiko Satomura, and Sayaka Akiba

1. Introduction Heat island circulation is one of the typical horizontal convection driven by the differential surface heating in the atmosphere. Because of its importance in the environmental problems, its basic dynamics has been extensively studied since the beginning of the last century (e.g., Jeffreys 1922 ; Malkus and Stern 1953 ; Stommel and Veronis 1957 ; Rossby 1965 ; Olfe and Lee 1971 ; Garstang et al. 1975 ; Kimura 1975 ; Ueda 1983 ). One of the interesting features of the

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Hannu Savijärvi and Stuart Matthews

and Grubiac 1993 ; Reisner and Smolarkiewicz 1994 ) primarily act as mechanical obstacles on the flow. The circulations associated with small islands (5–40 km in diameter) are perhaps the least well known. Studies of these are briefly summarized in section 2 . We have traced two types of linear analytic models for heat islands. The first is for oscillating land and sea breezes (SBs) with no large-scale wind, such as Defant's (1950 ; see also Pielke 2002 ). The second is for steady- state flow

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D. B. Olfe and R. L. Lee

1374 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPttERiC SCIENCES Vo~.n~aE28Linearized Calculations of Urban Heat Island Convection Effects D. B. OL~E aim R. L. LEEDept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Sd~nces, University of California, San Diego(Manuscript received 22 February 1.971, in revised form 15 luly 1971)ABSTRACT Steady, ]inearized flow calculations are carried out to estimate vertical temperature profiles

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Jaemyeong Mango Seo, Gantuya Ganbat, and Jong-Jin Baik

1. Introduction Weather and climate in urban areas are influenced by the local circulation induced by a thermal difference between urban and rural areas, which is called the urban breeze circulation (UBC) or the urban heat island circulation. A UBC can interact with other local circulations such as sea–land breeze circulation and mountain–valley breeze circulation, depending on the geographical location ( Dandou et al. 2009 ; Ryu and Baik 2013 ). The UBC is one of the interesting problems in

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Chiel C. van Heerwaarden, Juan Pedro Mellado, and Alberto De Lozar

the mean surface buoyancy flux is constant, but with a decreasing patch size and increasing patch heat flux for the different simulations. The results of these two experiments are discussed in sections 4 , 5 , and 6 . We present a more detailed interpretation of the time evolution by means of conditional statistics in section 7 . In section 8 , we develop the scaling laws. Subsequently, we discuss the conditions of the optimal state and the enhancement of entrainment compared to previous

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Chun-Chih Wang and Daniel J. Kirshbaum

their frontal surfaces (e.g., Kingsmill 1995 ; Carbone et al. 2000 ; Fovell 2005 ). As the wind strengthens and/or the island narrows, the island heat anomaly is carried into the wake and organizes into quasi-linear convergence zones. The associated updrafts may initiate cloud trails extending far downwind (e.g., Yang et al. 2008 ; Kirshbaum and Fairman 2015 ). Convection may also be initiated mechanically as impinging moist flow is forced to ascend or divert around mountainous island terrain

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Melvin E. Stern and Joanne Starr Malkus

meteorological problems. By proceedingthus in the case of the island, it is found that manyof the undesirable features of the model presented inPart I automatically disappear.2. Determination of a more realistic heating functionThe equation derived in Part I for the vertical displacement, $, of a streamline from its undisturbedlevel, upwind of the island, iswhere s is the undisturbed stability, assumed constant, U the constant undisturbed wind speed, g theacceleration of gravity, c, the specific heat of dry

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David Raymond and Marvin Wilkening

convection over an isolated mountain range heated by the sun arepresented. Filter techniques are used to deduce those scales of motion of significance to the circulation.A two-scale process is observed in which a toroidal, heat island circulation -20 km in diameter is drivenby 3-4 km convective eddies. Large negative heat fluxes are found in the upper part of the convectivecore over the mountains.1. Introduction It is well known that in the mountainous westernUnited States thunderstorms form

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Atsushi Mori and Hiroshi Niino

1. Introduction Horizontal convection is one of the most basic processes in geophysical flows. Typical examples of horizontal convection caused by differential heating of the earth's surface are land- and sea-breeze circulation (LSBC) and heat/cool island circulation (HCIC). There have been extensive observational, numerical, and theoretical studies of HCIC and LSBC. However, surprisingly little studies have been made on their formation processes. The purpose of the present study is to perform

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