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Ping Yang, Guoyu Ren, and Pengcheng Yan

surface heat budget forms the urban heat island (UHI), rendering the city consistently warmer than its surroundings ( Stewart and Oke 2012 ; Yang et al. 2013b ). The most pronounced UHIs have been observed for some large cities on calm and clear winter nights ( Jáuregui 1973 ; Rosenzweig et al. 2005 ). It is also demonstrated that the UHI intensity exhibits diurnal and seasonal variation, modulated by synoptic weather conditions. The UHI in urban areas produces rising and subsiding air, resulting in

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Fang Wang, Quansheng Ge, Shaowu Wang, Qingxiang Li, and Philip D. Jones

Report mentioned, most recent attention on urban heat island (UHI) effects has focused upon China ( Hartmann et al. 2013 ). Some studies have indicated that the UHI contribution was large, while some have showed a smaller contribution ( Table 1 ). Some studies looked at individual sites and estimated the UHI effects based on cities of different sizes. For example, Chu and Ren (2005) estimated an urbanization contribution to Beijing’s temperature change to be 71% during 1961–2000 and 49% during 1979

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Thomas C. Peterson and Timothy W. Owen

1. Introduction Understanding urban heat island (UHI) contamination in the in situ climate record is a complex task because the results are impacted by a wide variety of factors not related to urbanization. For example, temperature observations are impacted by differing observing times, different instrumentation, and different siting practices, each of which may cause inhomogeneities in space when comparing values from several different stations in and around a town and discontinuities in time

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Keith Oleson

understanding urban effects on climate and weather (e.g., as reviewed by Landsberg 1981 ; Oke 1988 ; Arnfield 2003 ; Collier 2006 ; Seto and Shepherd 2009 ). The urban heat island (UHI), a phenomenon describing the fact that urban areas are generally warmer than the surrounding rural areas was first recognized by Luke Howard in 1820 as described by Landsberg (1981) in his authoritative review of the field of urban climatology ( Oke 1991 ). The causes of the UHI were investigated in a series of

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Y. T. Eunice Lo, Daniel M. Mitchell, Sylvia I. Bohnenstengel, Mat Collins, Ed Hawkins, Gabriele C. Hegerl, Manoj Joshi, and Peter A. Stott

1. Introduction Increased exposure to high temperatures and, therefore, increased levels of heat-related mortality are projected in a warming world ( Lo et al. 2019 ; Vicedo-Cabrera et al. 2018 ). Urban inhabitants are generally more susceptible to heat stress due to the urban heat island effect ( Fischer et al. 2012 ; Heaviside et al. 2016 ). An urban heat island is characterized by higher near-surface air or surface skin temperatures in a given urban area compared to its rural surroundings

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Menglin S. Jin

1. Introduction Urban heat island effects (UHI) are defined by temperatures in urban regions exceeding those in surrounding rural regions. Traditionally, the UHI is quantified as the difference between the 2-m surface air temperature T 2m of a screen-level weather station (e.g., a World Meteorological Organization site) located in an urban region and T 2m for a nearby rural weather station. First reported by Howard (1833) , the UHI has been studied for decades ( Landsberg 1970 ; Oke 1982

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M. Georgescu

modifiers of local- to regional-scale climate ( Mills 2007 ). While the urban heat island (UHI) is classically acknowledged as the most distinct indicator of the built environment’s existence ( Stewart and Oke 2012 ), examination of urban impacts must extend beyond near-surface temperature to include effects on hydroclimate, air quality and consequent dispersion of particulates, energy demand necessary for the maintenance of living comfort, and consequences for ecosystems and biodiversity ( Shepherd

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Catherine Gautier

We present the first results concerning solar radiation at the ocean surface during the Tropic Heat experiment.Using calibrated GOES visible brightness measurements, a simple radiative transfer model calculates hourlyand daily surface solar irradiance values. To validate the satellite-estimated solar irradiance, surface solar irradiancemeasurements are taken from three sources: the Tropic Heat buoy 3, the R/V Wecoma, and the small tropicalPacific island of Hiva Oa. The comparison with the limited

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Caroline C. Ummenhofer and Matthew H. England

pronounced in ERA-40. Localized changes in moisture flux due to local wind anomalies seem to be more important for the North Island of New Zealand. Humidity is generally reduced (increased) during dry (wet) years in northern New Zealand over the land itself and the surrounding ocean regions (figure not shown) because of reduced (increased) latent heat flux from the ocean in the immediate vicinity of the island (figure not shown). This, along with the anomalous offshore (onshore) local winds, contributes

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Thomas C. Peterson

1. Introduction a. Impetus for this analysis As just about every introductory course on weather and climate explains, urban areas are generally warmer than nearby rural areas. Often referred to as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, urbanization has long been regarded as a serious contamination of the climate signal (e.g., Landsberg 1956 ). Those of us working with century-scale instrumental climate data strive to remove all sources of artificial biases from the data. So the UHI contamination

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