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Yuta Ando, Masayo Ogi, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

studies. Fig . 1. The 5-day running means of (a) the AO index as defined by Ogi et al. (2004) , (b) the WP index, (c) SAT anomalies over Japan from AMeDAS station data (°C), (d) air temperature anomalies (°C) as a function of time and pressure level, (e) the heat flux anomaly index (W m −2 ), and (f) SST anomalies (°C). In (d)–(f) areal averages over the Sea of Japan (36.0°–43.5°N, 130.0°–140.0°E; inside the orange box in Fig. 4 ) are shown. Daily anomalies were calculated relative to daily climatic

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

clearly illustrate a nonnegligible influence of biological heating on regional atmospheric processes. The positive standard deviations to the south and east of the Japan Islands indicate that SLP fluctuations intensified in the blue case. Moreover, in the right panel of Fig. 11 , the positive difference is remarkable in the high-pass (<7 days) filtered poleward eddy heat flux, integrated over the lower atmosphere (<850 hPa). A 7-day boxcar filter was used to obtain subweekly-scale properties required

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Youichi Tanimoto, Kou Shimoyama, and Shoichi Mori

the panel. The inset rectangle indicates the area showing (b) geographical locations of the six small Izu islands. Along the path of the Kuroshio and KE, and their meanders, frontal structures and detached cold and warm eddies are displayed in the satellite snapshots of the SST field. These rich SST structures on the O (100 km) scale and the larger deformation scale in the atmosphere induce temperature and moisture disequilibrium near the sea surface, which then forms a region of intense heat

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Kazutoshi Sato, Atsuyoshi Manda, Qoosaku Moteki, Kensuke K. Komatsu, Koto Ogata, Hatsumi Nishikawa, Miki Oshika, Yuriko Otomi, Shiori Kunoki, Hisao Kanehara, Takashi Aoshima, Kenichi Shimizu, Jun Uchida, Masako Shimoda, Mitsuharu Yagi, Shoshiro Minobe, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

Sea, on both climatological and synoptic time scales. This relationship implies that surface heat fluxes in the East China Sea affect BFZ seasonal migration. In addition, Kuwano-Yoshida et al. (2013) demonstrated by a suite of numerical experiments using global climate models that surface evaporation from the warm ocean is important for maintenance of the quasi-stationary BFZ. The Kuroshio, one of the most prominent ocean currents in the world, flows along the shelf edge in the East China Sea (e

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Kohei Takatama and Niklas Schneider

1. Introduction Recent satellite observations revealed a ubiquitous imprint of the ocean mesoscale on the surface wind. Associated SST fluctuations impact boundary layer winds by air–sea heat exchanges that simultaneously change hydrostatic pressure gradients (pressure adjustment mechanism; Lindzen and Nigam 1987 ) and vertical mixing of momentum (vertical mixing mechanism; Wallace et al. 1989 ; Hayes et al. 1989 ). This “thermal effect” has been studied extensively [see reviews by Xie

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

studies, because of their rather coarse horizontal resolution. Tanimoto et al. (2003) and Taguchi et al. (2009 , 2012 ) have found that, unlike in most of the North Pacific basin where surface heat flux anomalies due to changes in near-surface wind, air temperature, and humidity force SST anomalies, warm (cold) SST anomalies along the SAFZ tend to enhance (reduce) heat release into the atmosphere, which can be regarded as thermodynamic forcing by the SAFZ variability on the overlying atmosphere

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida and Shoshiro Minobe

response over the Kuroshio and Oyashio Extensions (KOE) using a regional atmospheric model. They suggested that the storm-track response is different between winter and spring. In spring, the surface heat flux gradient is prominent over the SST front, resulting in enhanced storm-track activity, although in winter, the cold and dry air advection associated with the Asian winter monsoon induces large heat fluxes on both the cold and warm sides of the SST front, resulting in a weaker atmospheric response

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Kotaro Katsube and Masaru Inatsu

Japanese islands. This classification is strongly linked with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO; Wang and Chan 2002 ). The effect of global warming on TC tracks in the western North Pacific has been examined mostly by simulation with a general circulation model (GCM). Because TC tracks are attributable to steering flow, global warming may affect them through its effect on background flow. Though beta drift is typically secondary in environments where the steering flow is stronger than 5 m s −1

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, and Takafumi Miyasaka

1. Introduction The midlatitude western boundary currents, which flow poleward along the western flank of each of the ocean basins, transport an enormous amount of heat from the tropics, releasing it into the midlatitude atmosphere in the form of turbulent sensible heat flux (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) while maintaining relatively warm sea surface temperature (SST) along their axes. The midlatitude oceanic frontal zones, which are characterized by steep gradients in SST along the poleward

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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

observations and (right) the model simulation. The contour interval is (top) 0.5 m 2 s −2 , (middle) 0.1 psu, and (bottom) 0.5 × 10 −10 m −1 s −1 . The acceleration potential is calculated relative to 2000 dbar. In (b), the region for the MWR (broken line) is indicated. The variability of the NPIW is important for freshwater transport ( Talley 2008 ) and the circulation of materials and heat ( Talley 2003 ) in the North Pacific. For example, silicate, which is abundant in the subarctic North Pacific, is

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