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Jeff Chieppa, Austin Bush, and Chandana Mitra

1. Introduction Urban heat island (UHI) refers to the enhanced atmospheric warmth of a city relative to its countryside: the urban–rural difference in temperature ( Balchin and Pye 1947 ; Stewart and Oke 2012 ; Ng 2015 ). Land-use changes are one of the driving factors creating UHIs in urban areas. More specifically, converting changing land from vegetation to urban structures (buildings and roads) alters the natural surface energy and radiation balances ( Oke 1982 ; Lowry and Lowry 2001

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Mark R. Jury and Sen Chiao

1. Introduction The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over coasts and large islands often exhibits confluence zones that initiate convective cloud lines ( Malkus 1955 ; Cooper et al. 1982 ; Blanchard and López 1985 ; Wilson and Schreiber 1986 ; Chen and Yu 1988 ; Wakimoto and Atkins 1994 ; Kingsmill 1995 ). The confluence zones involve frictional drag, surface heat fluxes, mountain wakes, and sea breezes—an understanding of which can aid short-range local weather forecasts. The ABL over

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

2050 is represented as the black slash area. Domains 1 and 2 are represented as the black dash and red box. Elevations are shown in meters. Since 1970, summers in U.S. urban areas have been recorded as being progressively warmer under the synergistic effects of global warming and urban heat island effect (NCDC, http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cag/ ). The 2014 Climate Central report indicates that 57 out of 60 the largest U.S. cities had measurable growth in urban heat island effect over the period 2004

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J. Marshall Shepherd and Steven J. Burian

1. Introduction Howard ( Howard, 1833 ) made the first documented observation of a temperature difference between an urban area and its rural environment. Manley ( Manley, 1958 ) termed this contrast the “urban heat island” (UHI). The UHI has now become a widely acknowledged, observed, and researched phenomenon because of its broad implications. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world’s population will live in cities [the United Nations Population Fund (UNFP) 1999 ]. In the

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Daniel E. Comarazamy, Jorge E. González, Jeffrey C. Luvall, Douglas L. Rickman, and Pedro J. Mulero

impacts due to urbanization is a well-known urban/rural convective circulation known as urban heat islands (UHIs). The urban heat island is defined as a dome of high temperatures observed over urban centers as compared to the relatively low temperatures of the rural surroundings (see Figure 1 ). Some of the factors that lead to the formation of a heat island are the widespread use of diverse construction materials. Materials used in cities have a much higher thermal inertia than natural

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J. Marshall Shepherd

emissions (e.g., agriculture, ecosystems, etc.) contribute to global atmospheric composition? (iv) How are estimates of atmospheric composition and related processes to be used in assessments of the vulnerability of ecosystems to urban growth and long-range chemical transport? (v) What research is required on the climatic effects of temperature on air quality, particularly in urban heat islands and other regional settings, and the potential health consequences? Urban areas modify boundary layer

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Daniel M. Brown, Gerhard W. Reuter, and Thomas K. Flesch

emissions of SO X and NO X could cause acid rain, which would acidify lakes downwind. The scale of the land disturbance led us to wonder whether the oil sands could also cause inadvertent weather modification. Inadvertent weather modification due to changes in land cover has been studied extensively. “Urban heat island” is a term used to describe how urban environments cause warmer temperatures in the city center than in the surrounding rural areas. Oke ( Oke 1982 ) found that the magnitude of an

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Mark R. Jury

airflow over small flat islands is modified by friction, diurnal heating, and moisture convergence. Even small Antilles islands shed cloud bands due to eddy fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture ( Malkus and McCasland 1949 ; Malkus 1963 ; Garstang 1967 ; Garstang 1972 ). Conceptual and numerical models have been used to understand the interaction of convection and the island-perturbed flow ( Malkus and Stern 1953 ; Smith 1955 ; Smith 1957 ; Estoque and Bhumralkar 1969 ; Takeda 1971 ). Aircraft

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Bharat Rastogi, A. Park Williams, Douglas T. Fischer, Sam F. Iacobellis, Kathryn McEachern, Leila Carvalho, Charles Jones, Sara A. Baguskas, and Christopher J. Still

passive recovery may be sufficient to restore island ecosystem functions, allowing land managers to direct resources to areas less likely to benefit from the recurring presence of atmospheric moisture where heat load and evapotranspiration place greater stress on recovering vegetation. Patterns of stratus on forested parts of western Santa Cruz Island correlate strongly and significantly with large areas of Santa Rosa (figure not shown), where restoration efforts are beginning. Examining the forest

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Daniel Brown and Gerhard Reuter

by Schmid and Niyogi (2013) have even indicated that some urban surface disturbances may result in lower precipitation. In situations where artificial surface disturbances appear to result in higher precipitation or thunderstorm enhancement, researchers propose three possible causes: the urban heat island, increased surface roughness, and cloud condensation nuclei emissions ( Changnon et al. 1976 ; Steiger et al. 2002 ). Heat islands as a manifestation of inadvertent weather modification have

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