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C. Hogrefe, W. Hao, K. Civerolo, J.-Y. Ku, G. Sistla, R. S. Gaza, L. Sedefian, K. Schere, A. Gilliland, and R. Mathur

–height cross section of EC concentrations indeed shows relative small vertical concentration gradients from the surface to a height of about 1.5 km. Therefore, this suggests that any or all of the following factors could cause the erroneous shape of the predicted diurnal profile: 1) an inaccurate temporal allocation of primary EC emissions from some or all of the relevant source categories, 2) an underestimation of nighttime vertical mixing in the New York City urban area characterized by urban heat island

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George Kallos, Marina Astitha, Petros Katsafados, and Chris Spyrou

between a few tens of meters during the night and 2–4 km or even deeper during the day, especially during summer ( Kallos et al. 1998a ). The mixing layer over the Mediterranean Sea is almost stable during the diurnal cycle (∼300 m) and varies slightly with the seasonal cycle (200–350 m). An important feature of the coastal zones of the GMR is the formation of the internal boundary layer. The islands and the peninsulas act as chimneys and obstacles, causing abrupt changes in the mixing depth ( Kallos

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