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Ning Zhang, Yan Chen, Ling Luo, and Yongwei Wang

exchange between the ground surface and the atmosphere compared to natural landscapes. The changes in land surface energy budgets cause warm surface layers over cities and form the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. The UHI may exacerbate heat waves over urban areas due to the low vegetation cover and less evapotranspiration in cities; these impacts have been proven by both observations and numerical simulations ( Grimmond 2007 ; Sugawara et al. 2008 ; Basara et al. 2010 ; Zhou and Shepherd 2010

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Wenjing Zhao, Ning Zhang, Jianning Sun, and Jun Zou

simple atmospheric model: Impact on urban heat island simulation for an idealized case . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 82 , 67 – 80 , doi:10.2151/jmsj.82.67 . Kusaka, H. , Kondo H. , Kikegawa Y. , and Kimura F. , 2001 : A simple single-layer urban canopy model for atmospheric models: Comparison with multi-layer and slab models . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 101 , 329 – 358 , doi:10.1023/A:1019207923078 . Lemonsu, A. , and Masson V. , 2002 : Simulation of a summer urban breeze over Paris

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William M. Schertzer, Wayne R. Rouse, Peter D. Blanken, and Anne E. Walker

associated with the intense El Niño. c. Comparison of bulk heat exchange with computed heat flux Figure 12 shows a comparison between the 5-day mean bulk heat exchange determined from heat content computations in this paper, with a total heat flux computed from Inner Whaleback Island in 1999 based on detailed observations of radiative and turbulent exchanges from eddy correlation ( Rouse et al. 2003 ; Blanken et al. 2000 ; Blanken et al. 2003 ). Rouse et al. (2003) defines a modified heat exchange

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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Yan Jin, Bohar Singh, and Xiaoqin Yan

referred to as “memory”) of soil moisture, coupling indices between soil moisture and surface fluxes (namely, latent and sensible heat flux), changes in the mean and variability of surface heat fluxes, alterations in the relationships between surface fluxes and near-surface meteorological variables, and the evolution of key characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer that are modulated by the underlying land surface. We examine three experiments from CMIP5 simulations: the historical experiment

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Dan Li, Elie Bou-Zeid, Mary Lynn Baeck, Stephen Jessup, and James A. Smith

of urbanization on the surface energy balance and rainfall climatology [see Shephard (2005) for a review and Smith et al. (2012) for analyses in the Baltimore study region]. Three main mechanisms that are responsible for urban modification of precipitation are urban heat island effects (e.g., Bornstein and Lin 2000 ; Dixon and Mote 2003 ; Lin et al. 2011 ), urban canopy effects (e.g., Loose and Bornstein 1977 ; Miao et al. 2011 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ), and urban aerosol effects (e

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Ayumi Fujisaki-Manome, Greg E. Mann, Eric J. Anderson, Philip Y. Chu, Lindsay E. Fitzpatrick, Stanley G. Benjamin, Eric P. James, Tatiana G. Smirnova, Curtis R. Alexander, and David M. Wright

was used for the verification of the changes in lake-wide mean water surface temperature during the events. 2) Turbulent heat fluxes Turbulent heat flux data from four offshore platforms were used to compare with the simulated turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes ( λE and H , respectively) by WRF. The data were collected from offshore, lighthouse-based monitoring platforms ( Fig. 1 ): Stannard Rock (Lake Superior), Granite Island (Lake Superior), White Shoal (Lake Michigan), and Spectacle

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Paul W. Miller and Craig A. Ramseyer

in June or July ( Zuidema et al. 2019 ). However, in 2015, strong SAL intrusions were first documented in April and continued for several months ( Mote et al. 2017 ; Zuidema et al. 2019 ). Whereas Mote et al. (2017) examined a synoptic mechanism for the 2015 drought, recent work by Hosannah et al. (2019) investigated local-scale processes associated with Puerto Rico convective rainfall. Observations showed spatially varying precipitation anomalies across the island during the 2015 drought

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Dashan Wang, Xianwei Wang, Lin Liu, Dagang Wang, and Zhenzhong Zeng

, carbon dioxide, and aerosol, and thus affect the spatial heterogeneity of precipitation ( Feddema et al. 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ). Especially urban areas have substantial contrasts in temperature, wind speed, and humidity against their rural surroundings, producing peculiar atmospheric circulations, and spatial variation of precipitation at a local scale. The urban heat island (UHI) effect, large land surface roughness, and high aerosol concentrations are considered as the main factors affecting

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J. Fišák, J. Chum, J. Vojta, and K. Bartůňková

supply power to the electronics and for communication with a computer. A thermally compensated tensometric bridge and electronic system are located in the electronics case. The bridge is connected by the holder (3) with low thermal conductivity to the collecting board (5). The opening for the holder in the case is protected from insects and dirt by a gasket cover (6). To reduce the impact of heat from the electric circuit to the collecting board, a thermal cover (4) is placed above the case

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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

.g., Ramis et al. 1994 ; Doswell et al. 1998 ; Homar et al. 2002 ; Martín et al. 2007 ; Michaelides et al. 2018 ). The relatively warm Mediterranean Sea acts as a heat and moisture source during late summer and early autumn. Indeed, the maximum climatological frequency of flash flood producing HPEs occurs in autumn (e.g., Llasat et al. 2010 ). The combination of this factor with the presence of cold midlevel disturbances and maritime warm and moist air at low levels generates convective instability

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