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Xiao-Ming Hu and Ming Xue

1. Introduction In numerous studies, temperatures over urban areas have been found to be typically higher than over surrounding rural areas. This phenomenon is commonly known as the urban heat island (UHI; Oke 1976 , 1981 , 1982 ; Arnfield 2003 ). Because of rapid urbanization during the past few decades around the world, UHI has been the subject of increasingly more investigations. UHI intensity is normally defined/quantified as the difference between urban and rural near

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Feng Hsiao, Yi-Leng Chen, and David Eugene Hitzl

thermally forced convection due to elevated heat sources over Dominica (mountaintops ~1.5 km) during a weak wind day (<2 m s −1 ). Their sensitivity tests confirm that thermal forcing drives convection over the island interior due to localized lifting, which is caused by upslope flow and convergence over the island interior (their Fig. 9). During summer trade wind weather on Oahu, there are considerable spatial variations in airflow, thermodynamic variables, and rainfall throughout the diurnal cycle

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John C. Price

1554 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 107 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEAssessment of the Urban Heat Island EffectThrough the Use of Satellite Data ;om-~ C. PmCELaboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS), NASAIGoddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 16 February 1979 and 22 June 1979ABSTRACT A recent NASA satellite is obtaining high spatial

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Gerard A. DeMarrais

1975 G E R A R D A. D E M A R R A I S 235Nocturnal Heat Island Intensities and Relevance to Forecasts of Mixing Heights GERARD A. DEMARRAIStMeteorology Laboratory, National Environmental Researck Center, Research Triangle Park, N. C. 27711(Manuscript received 10 September 1974; in revised form 1! December 1974)ABSTRACT Daily minimum temperature differences for 1964 for pairs of urban and

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FRED M. VUKOVICH

December 197191 9VDC 551.584.5: 551.588. i: 551.556THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF MEAN WIND AND STABILITYON A HEAT ISLAND CIRCULATION CHARACTERISTIC OF AN URBAN COMPLEXFRED M. VUKOVICHEngineering and Environmental Sciences Division, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, N.C.ABSTRACIA simple two-dimensional linear model was used to explore the nature of the heat island circulation of an urbanarea. Two stability categories, stable and near-neutral, were assumed to define the

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Fred M. Vukovich

JA~uxRY1975 FRED M. VUKOVICH 27A Study of the Effect of Wind Shear on a Heat Island Circulation Characteristic of an Urban Complex F~m) M. VvKovtct Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, N. C. 27709(Manuscript received 25 April 1974, in revised form 13 September 1974) ABSTRACT Simple linear models were used to study the

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Michael Matson, E. Paul Mcclain, David F. McGinnis Jr., and John A. Pritchard

midwesternand northeastern United States from the NOAA 5 satellite enabled detection of more than 50 urban heatislands. Analysis of digital data from the satellite for selected cities yielded maximum urban-rural temperature differences ranging from 2.6 to 6.5-C. Through computer enhancement and enlargement of thesatellite imagery, the urban heat islands of St. Louis, Washington, DC and Baltimore can be depicted at ausable scale as large as 1:500 000. A comparison of the enhanced thermal infrared imagery

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N. Andrew Crook

section 2 a linear model of flow over an isolated heat source is developed to examine the dependence of the lifting on flow speed and direction and heating rate. These analytical results will help guide the nonlinear numerical simulations, which are described in section 3. These simulations will be used to determine the integrated convective response to the heating and cooling over the islands. Although these simulations will show the dependence of the convective strength on the low-level convergence

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Yang Yang and Yi-Leng Chen

contrast with the longest duration of anabatic/upslope flow along the Kona leeside coastline ( Yang and Chen 2003 ; Chen and Nash 1994 ). Furthermore, in addition to feedback effects of latent heat release ( Chen and Feng 2001 ), the variations of orographic cloud cover and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere due to different terrain/mountain heights could affect the thermal forcing from the surface and feed back to the island-scale airflow and weather. Therefore, without careful consideration

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Junshi Ito and Hiroshi Niino

shedding and have unveiled some of its important aspects. However, there have been few simulations of Kármán vortex shedding in the real atmosphere and most of them have focused on Madeira Island in the northeast Atlantic ( Li et al. 2008 ; Couvelard et al. 2012 ; Caldeira and Tomé 2013 ; Nunalee and Basu 2014 ). Nunalee and Basu (2014) used a numerical simulation model with a horizontal resolution of 2 km, and obtained a cloud pattern that resembles a satellite image of cellular stratocumulus

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