Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 1,196 items for :

  • Heat islands x
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography x
  • All content x
Clear All
Cátia C. Azevedo, Carolina M. L. Camargo, José Alves, and Rui M. A. Caldeira

wind stress curl, the thermal forcing can also impact the local ocean circulation. Heat transfer is high, particularly in areas with weak surface winds and thus weaker mixing as in the lee of islands (e.g., Yang et al. 2008 ). However, the thermodynamic effects of wakes are poorly discussed in the scientific literature. Most studies focus on the (dominant) transfer of momentum from the atmospheric to the ocean surface (e.g., Dong and McWilliams 2007 ; Couvelard et al. 2012 ), often disregarding

Open access
Cátia C. Azevedo, Carolina M. L. Camargo, José Alves, and Rui M. A. Caldeira


The interaction between the incoming winds with high mountainous islands produces a wind-sheltered area in the leeward side, known as the atmospheric wake. In addition to weaker winds, the wake is also characterized by a clearing of clouds, resulting in intense solar radiation reaching the sea surface. As a consequence, a warm oceanic wake forms on the leeward side. This phenomenon detectable from space can extend 100 km offshore of Madeira, where the sea surface temperature can be 4⁰C higher than the surrounding oceanic waters. This study considers in-situ, remote sensing, and ocean circulation model data, to investigate the effects of the warm wake in the vertical structure of the upper ocean. To characterize the convective layer (25-70m) developing within the oceanic wake, 200 vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and turbulence were considered, together with the computation of the Density Ratio and Turner-angle. In comparison to the open-ocean water column, wake waters are strongly stratified with respect to temperature although highly unstable. The vertical profiles of salinity show distinct water parcels that sink and/or rise as a response to the intense heat fluxes. During the night, the ocean surface cools, leading to the stretching of the mixed layer which was replicated by the ocean circulation model. In exposed, non-wake regions however, particularly in the southeast and north coast of the island, the stretching of the mixed layer is not detectable.

Restricted access
Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Raghu Murtugudde, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

experiments NoG F and G F and that the anomalous net heat flux to the atmosphere, primarily by Q LAT , is reduced as well. b. Hybrid coupled experiments In this section, we discuss the effect of the Galápagos Islands on internal ENSO variability with the ocean model coupled to the atmosphere through zonal wind stress. Specifically, we are interested in any changes in the time scale of ENSO, as the idealized experiments served to show that, given an identical perturbation in the wind field, the

Full access
Thierry Delcroix and Catherine Gautier

recorded in three tropical Pacific islands (Christmas,Fanning and Truk) during the 1979-85 period. Good qualitative agreements are found between the two heat content estimates with correlations R = 0.78to 0.94 and rms differences of average temperature of 0.25- to 0.50-C over an observed range of 6-C. Quantitativedisagreements are observed in the central Pacific during the fall 1982 (El Nifio) period. These deficiencies inthe method are found to be primarily due to intense and unusual salinity

Full access
Bo Qiu and Shuiming Chen

northeastward from Taiwan to the Midway Islands (around 30°N, 179°W). A third, but less strong, poleward eddy heat transport area can be seen offshore of Mexico. Instead of a broad northward transport as shown in Fig. 1 , Fig. 12 reveals that the meridional heat transport in the Kuroshio Extension region varies in direction along the path of the Kuroshio Extension jet. This reversal in direction of the meridional heat transport was also found by Wunsch (1999) based on historical moored current meter

Full access
Zachariah R. Hallock

front (IFF)north of the Faeroe Islands during October 1980. It consisted of CTD transects on three horizontal scales rangingfrom kilometers to hundreds of kilometers. Intense interleaving of different water masses is found in the IFF in the presence of horizontal current shear.Significant alongfront variability on scales of about 50 km is present, consistent with earlier findings. Estimatesof cross-front heat flux of 5.16 x 104 W m-2 and salt flux of 1.58 g m-2 s-~ are greater than those found

Full access
Benjamin G. M. Webber, Karen J. Heywood, David P. Stevens, and Karen M. Assmann

merges and continues southward toward Pine Island and Thwaites ice shelves along the eastern edge of Pine Island Trough ( Heywood et al. 2016 ). This water loses heat to melting the glaciers before flowing northward along the western edge of Pine Island Trough and then westward toward the Ross Sea as a cooler and fresher water mass ( Nakayama et al. 2013 , 2014a ; Biddle et al. 2017 ; Mallett et al. 2018 ). The oceanic conditions on the Amundsen Sea continental shelf vary on a range of time scales

Open access
A. Schiller, J. S. Godfrey, P. C. McIntosh, G. Meyers, and S. E. Wijffels

RAND Corporation. Godfrey, J. S., 1989: A Sverdrup model of the depth-integrated flow for the world ocean allowing for island circulations. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 45, 89–112. ——, 1996: The effect of the Indonesian Throughflow on ocean circulation and heat exchange with the atmosphere: A review. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12 217–12 237. ——, and A. J. Weaver, 1991: Is the Leeuwin current driven by Pacific heating and winds? Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 27, Pergamon, 225

Full access
Gunnar I. Roden

abyssal temperatures east of Isla Socorro, apparently due to heat flow. Baroclinic flow in the Revilla Gigedo islands region is characterized by high-speed flow near capes andislands. Outflow from the Gulf of California takes place in a narrow high velocity core near its westernside. The width of the high-speed core is of the order of 30 km and speeds >30 cm sec-~ occur down to 700 m.The high-speed flow is accomplished by a break in the high stability layer. Inflow into the gulf occurs overa

Full access
T. P. Barnett

inair-sea heat exchange. The estimates of /~IWl wereobtained from the actual observations of the trade windfield described in Section 3b. The constant h~ is foundfrom the historical record. 2) Transport of warm water to the east by theNECC--F2 Wyrtki (1973, 1974b) gives substantial evidence tosupport the assumption that the relative strength ofthe NECC can be deduced from the sea level differencebetween Christmas and Kwajalein Islands. Using thisindex, interannual variation in the horizontal

Full access