Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for :

  • Heat islands x
  • Review Articles in Monthly Weather Review x
  • All content x
Clear All
Dayton G. Vincent

(1985-90) ofWCRP/TOGA archive II ECMWF analyses. The figureclearly shows that midtropospheric upward motionalong the SPCZ, particularly in the diagonal portion, ismuch stronger and extensive in December-Februarythan in other seasons. A convenient summary of the seasonal changes thatoccur in the SPCZ region is provided by Meehl (1987).He illustrates the annual cycle of several variablesbased on island station reports across the Indian andPacific Oceans. His results clearly illustrate the southward

Full access
Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

were constrained to use time series thatranged from only three months to two years long. Wethought that we could add to their findings because theNational Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR)Data Support Section had begun to collect rawinsondedata from around the world and had data from at leastone tropical station, Canton Island~ (2.8-S, 171.7-W),for nearly a ten-year period. We also had access atNCAR to the biggest computer available to atmospheric scientists (Control Data Corporation 6600

Full access
Clifford Mass and Brigid Dotson

occurring over the nearby Pacific, the extensive loss of timber around the lighthouse and the adjacent Washington coast was consistent with a singular event. At Astoria, on the south side of the Columbia, there was an unofficial report of 113 kt (58 m s −1 ) gusts, while at Tatoosh Island, located at the northwest tip of Washington, the winds reached 96 kt (49 m s −1 ). c. 12 October 1962: The Columbus Day Storm By all accounts, the Columbus Day Storm was the most damaging windstorm to strike the

Full access
Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas, and Thilo Kühne

waterspouts would be restrictive for some European countries. Several countries have a large part of their landscape covered by lakes (e.g., 187 000); others countries contain peninsulas (e.g., southern Italy). Other countries consist entirely of a single island (e.g., Malta in the Mediterranean Sea) or comprise archipelagos (e.g., Greece has more than a thousand islands). To accommodate these countries, in this article, the following tornado definition adapted from Rauhala et al. (2012) is used: a

Full access
Robert Wood

(note the Azores and Canary Islands). (top-right inset) A higher resolution (15 m) visible image ( λ = 0.8 μ m) taken at approximately the same time using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). (bottom-right inset) Detail from the main image. Stratocumuli tend to form under statically stable lower-tropospheric conditions ( Klein and Hartmann 1993 ). Strong longwave cooling at the cloud top drives convective instability that helps to enhance, maintain, and

Full access
Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

challenges associated with TCs that become extratropical cyclones, a process known as extratropical transition (ET; Jones et al. 2003 ). Tropical cyclones gain energy from warm ocean waters through evaporation and subsequent latent heat release by deep, moist convection. The storm develops a warm core as a result, with the strongest winds near the surface that decrease in strength with height. The wind, precipitation, and temperature fields become more axisymmetric as the TC matures. Conversely

Open access
Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

Horizontal convective rolls are a common form of boundary layer convection manifested as counterrotating vortices about the horizontally oriented axis. Clouds often form atop the updraft branches of rolls (e.g., Kuettner 1959 , 1971 ; LeMone and Pennell 1976 ; Christian and Wakimoto 1989 ). Rolls and cloud streets can extend hundreds of kilometers and last several hours. The conditions necessary for roll development and maintenance are surface-layer heat flux, some minimal low-level wind shear, and

Full access
Paul M. Markowski

cylinder of the vortex), but the authors did not offer an explanation for the exact cause of the appearance of the asc. Stout and Huff (1953) also observed a similar feature, but little was discussed of it. Donaldson (1970) noted an echo hole in the tornado he studied, and found that it was collocated with a tornado vortex. Forbes (1981) also observed similar reflectivity features during the tornado outbreak of 3–4 April 1974, as did Fujita and Wakimoto (1982) in their study of the Grand Island

Full access