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Juan Declet-Barreto, Kim Knowlton, G. Darrel Jenerette, and Alexander Buyantuev

1. Introduction Exposure to high summertime temperatures is a significant threat to human health, especially in cities, where urban heat islands (UHIs) are elevating temperatures already on the rise from global climate change. Heat-retaining, impervious land covers like paved roadways and unvegetated surfaces and alterations to wind and energetic flows from vertical surfaces of buildings elevate local temperatures in UHIs. These anthropogenic, regional-scale transformations to natural land

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José L. Hernández, Syewoon Hwang, Francisco Escobedo, April H. Davis, and James W. Jones

updraft moisture flow confirmed by the RH contours. The dome was somewhat extended at the base and skewed toward the eastern side of the peninsula compared to the afternoon cross section of the ALU experiment. The RHs of Fig. 7 shows lower surface RH in the afternoon, in agreement with the COAPS observations. The ALU and ELU simulations presented some differences, most noticeably in the evening when wind and urban heat island (UHI) interactions affected both cross sections. The 29°C contour of

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Michelle D. Hawkins, Vankita Brown, and Jannie Ferrell

policies and criteria was the recommendation to develop very distinct criteria for urban areas, which tend to be warmer than surrounding rural areas because of the urban heat island effect. Several public health studies indicate the heat island effect, in which land cover characteristics and poor air quality combine to enhance the impacts of heat for city dwellers, further increases the health burden on vulnerable populations within cities ( Anderson and Bell 2009 ; Uejio et al. 2011 ; Berko et al

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Tanja Wolf, Glenn McGregor, and Antonis Analitis

conditions. A randomization test was used to identify mortality excess for different temperature thresholds with environmental, demographic, and social factors associated with high-risk areas subsequently identified via principal component regression ( Hondula et al. 2012 ). Along the same lines, Johnson and Wilson (2009) examined the spatial relationships among vulnerable populations, the satellite-detected urban heat island (UHI), and heat-related mortality during an extreme heat event in

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Mark M. Shimamoto and Sabrina McCormick

.S. population lives in urban environments ( U.S. Census Bureau 2012 ). Large cities are more vulnerable to climate-related health risks than other less populous locations ( Luber et al. 2014 ; Cutter et al. 2014 ). Extreme heat events are the leading cause of weather-related mortality in the United States and are especially dangerous in cities with urban heat islands, which further increase ambient temperatures by absorbing heat into asphalt, concrete, and buildings ( Habeeb et al. 2015 ; Luber and

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Mary H. Hayden, Olga V. Wilhelmi, Deborah Banerjee, Tamara Greasby, Jamie L. Cavanaugh, Vishnu Nepal, Jennifer Boehnert, Stephan Sain, Crystal Burghardt, and Stephanie Gower

1. Introduction Extreme heat is a leading cause of weather-related human mortality in the United States ( NOAA 2016 ) and many countries worldwide ( Hajat and Kosatsky 2010 ). Heat-related negative health outcomes typically occur when daily temperatures exceed a normal range for a given climate, local setting, and availability of adaptations ( Patz et al. 2005 ; McMichael et al. 2006 ). Societal vulnerability often determines the magnitude and the distribution of negative impacts of extreme

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Ana Raquel Nunes

1. Introduction The frequency and intensity of extreme temperature events are increasing, imposing greater impacts on human health and well-being over time ( IPCC 2018 ). As a result, in recent years the impact of temperature extremes have been receiving increased attention, as heat waves and cold waves result in deaths and changes in the patterns of morbidity ( Nunes 2019a ; Arbuthnott and Hajat 2017 ; Hajat 2017 ; Nogueira et al. 2009 ). This is particularly evident in some groups in

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Kyle Andrew Poyar and Nancy Beller-Simms

underway. Although climate change adaptation and mitigation tend to be considered separately (as noted in Pielke 1998 ), adaptation strategies can often have synergies with greenhouse gas mitigation efforts. For instance, urban tree planting can simultaneously mitigate the urban heat island effect, lessen exposure to extreme heat, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Similarly, energy efficiency improvements, reflective roofing, urban greenspace (e.g., green roofs), and compact urban development all

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Nuria Vargas and Víctor Magaña

( O’Keefe et al. 1976 ). The vulnerability context in which weather extremes occur has also become an important part of the analysis of climatic risk ( Cardona et al. 2012 ) and a key element to explain the impacts of adverse climate conditions. One of the best examples on climatic hazards and vulnerability, leading to high levels of risk that affect urban societies, are megacities ( Wolf 2014 ; Mayrhuber et al. 2018 ). The well-known urban heat island (UHI) effect, related to increased mean

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Claire Steinweg and William J. Gutowski Jr.

heat islands can enhance a regional warming in the core of a city ( Zhou and Shepherd 2010 ; Li and Bou-Zeid 2013 ). By averaging over a larger area, the analysis focuses on heat stress over a broader region and, to some extent, minimizes the lack of explicit urban modeling in these RCMs. c. Analysis The analysis focuses on the period 1 May–31 August, which are the months that experience the greatest heat stress in the current climate, according to the NARR output (not shown). GCMs and RCMS may

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