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Talmor Meir, Philip M. Orton, Julie Pullen, Teddy Holt, William T. Thompson, and Mark F. Arend

City has an area of 790 km 2 , a population of 8 million, and contains five boroughs that are all influenced by the marine coastal atmosphere. NYC lies at the center of a broader urban and suburban metropolitan region, with Long Island extending to the east and New Jersey and the city of Newark to the west and southwest. Both NJ and Long Island are bordered by the coastal waters of the Atlantic ( Fig. 1 ). NYC and its surrounding urbanized region generate a pronounced urban heat island (UHI) effect

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Francisco Salamanca Palou and Alex Mahalov

the supply of food, energy, and water to the new residents. However, compared to native landscapes, buildings and pavements decrease the nocturnal cooling rates promoting a positive urban–rural near-surface air temperature difference, known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and modifying the weather and climate from local to global scales (e.g., Oke 1988 ; Oleson et al. 2010 ; Zhao and Wu 2017 ). The UHI phenomenon is the expression of a warmer city relative to its contiguous rural

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R. Hamdi, Daan Degrauwe, and P. Termonia

impacts on (i) the capability of NWP to recreate typical urban climate phenomena like the urban heat island (UHI; Oke 1982 ) and (ii) operational meteorological centers that model the mesoscale flow systems in and around urban areas and subsequently the sensible weather. Model output statistics (MOS; Glahn and Lowry 1972 ) have been developed to improve the skill scores of raw NWP models for civilian and military customers. MOS has been widely adopted by operational meteorological centers to correct

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Yongxin Zhang, Yi-Leng Chen, Thomas A. Schroeder, and Kevin Kodama

more quickly than moist, vegetated ones given the same radiative input of energy ( Kimble et al. 1946 ). Consequently more heat becomes available to initiate the sea-breeze circulation ( Atkinson 1981 ). For the case of the northwestern part of the Big Island, hilly terrain with a lava surface provide favorable ingredients for the initiation of sea breezes against strong winds out of the Waimea Saddle. The MSM–LSM simulates weak (0.5–2 m s −1 ) southwesterly and northwesterly onshore flow between

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Kevin R. Kodama and Steven Businger

Hawaii, two U.S. trust territories (Guam and American Samoa), and four foreign countries. These political entities consist of islands and atolls from the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, the Marshall Islands, the Hawaiian Islands, and the Samoa Islands ( Fig. 1 ). The foreign countries, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands, are provided weather support under the auspices of the

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Yongxin Zhang, Yi-Leng Chen, Song-You Hong, Hann-Ming Henry Juang, and Kevin Kodama

1. Introduction During the summer months, trade winds are persistent (∼92%) over the Hawaiian Islands ( Schroeder 1993 ) with frequent orographic clouds and local showers, especially on the windward sides without the presence of synoptic/mesoscale disturbances. Leopold (1949) first described qualitatively the interactions between the prevailing trade wind flow and the island-induced circulations over the Hawaiian Islands. For the six largest islands of Hawaii, rainfall maxima correspond to

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Jia Sun, Hailun He, Xiaomin Hu, Dingqi Wang, Cen Gao, and Jinbao Song

intensive TC convection. Model-simulated OLR structures of Typhoon Hagupit over the SCS are shown in Fig. 8 . With the KF scheme, the simulated convection was enhanced east of 113°E ( Fig. 8a ), accompanied by rapid TC intensification and great strength. The low OLR values west of the Philippine Islands may be the result of widespread cloud coverage associated with the rapid intensification that was occurring when Hagupit entered the SCS. Analogous to the sensible heat flux, the GD-simulated OLR was

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Richard J. Reed, Mark D. Albright, Adrian J. Sammons, and Per Undén

SEPTEMBER 1988 REED ET AL. 217The Role of Latent Heat Release in Explosive Cyclogenesis:Three Examples Based on ECMWF Operational ForecastsRICHARD J. REED,* ADRIAN J. SIMMONS,** MARK D. ALBRIGHT* AND PER UND]~N** *Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington **European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England

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Mingling R. Wu, Bradley J. Snyder, Ruping Mo, Alex J. Cannon, and Paul I. Joe

1. Introduction East Vancouver Island (EVI) is a coastal region in the Georgia Basin of British Columbia (BC), Canada ( Fig. 1 ). This region is characterized by topographic extremes, with the Vancouver Island Ranges to the southwest and the Georgia Strait to the northeast. Its winter climate is dominated by a westerly Pacific airstream descending along the east-facing mountain slopes, which tend to disperse cloud and lessen rainfall events ( Boughner 1937 ; Lange 1998 ). However, locally

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Steven J. Caruso and Steven Businger

1. Introduction The subtropical areas in the central North Pacific Ocean are affected by upper-level lows throughout the year ( Palmen 1949 ; Palmer 1951 ). During the cool season (October–April), these lows originate as troughs that become cut off from the polar westerlies and are the focal points for surface cyclogenesis. The resulting subtropical cyclones are known as kona lows ( Simpson 1952 ; Ramage 1962 ; Morrison and Businger 2001 ). Many leeward areas on the Hawaiian Islands 1

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