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Paul E. Ciesielski and Richard H. Johnson

island on the moisture field is likely related to diurnal heating of the atoll’s shallow lagoon (maximum depth is 25 m with about half the lagoon being less than 10 m deep). On this clear-sky day, solar heating of the lagoon likely resulted in high afternoon SSTs, promoting strong latent and sensible heat fluxes and thus enhanced moisture and heat plumes, respectively, contributing to the moist, deep boundary layer at this time. Fig . 7. As in Fig. 3 , but for DG near nominal upsonde launch time of

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Jianhao Zhang, Paquita Zuidema, David D. Turner, and Maria P. Cadeddu

heat budgets ( Johnson et al. 2015 , and references therein). Such networks possess a 3-hourly temporal resolution at best, and the spatial sampling is sparse enough that significant moisture filaments can be missed ( Hannah et al. 2016 ). Satellite measurements of column water vapor path provide improved spatial resolution, but they have more difficulty resolving moisture variations in the lower free troposphere because of contributing surface emission, especially over land. Another approach

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