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G. Lloyd, C. Dearden, T. W. Choularton, J. Crosier, and K. N. Bower

). Matejka et al. (1980) investigated the microphysics of different frontal bands and, in some cases, highlighted the importance of microphysical and mesoscale convective processes that had a direct influence on the formation and spatial distribution of precipitation. For example, below the narrow convective updraft of an NCFR, precipitation is suppressed through suspension or upward movement of hydrometeors. Crosier et al. (2014) found that production of small secondary ice crystals through rime

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C. Dearden, G. Vaughan, T. Tsai, and J.-P. Chen

microphysics observations taken during DIAMET are presented in Lloyd et al. (2014) . Data from three specific cyclones were examined in detail—two from the winter months and one in summer. In each case, a wide variety of ice crystal habits (shapes) were detected as a function of altitude, with high ice water contents and number concentrations around −5°C due to secondary ice crystal production via rime splintering ( Hallett and Mossop 1974 ). Existing operational models are unable to predict variations in

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G. Vaughan, J. Methven, D. Anderson, B. Antonescu, L. Baker, T. P. Baker, S. P. Ballard, K. N. Bower, P. R. A. Brown, J. Chagnon, T. W. Choularton, J. Chylik, P. J. Connolly, P. A. Cook, R. J. Cotton, J. Crosier, C. Dearden, J. R. Dorsey, T. H. A. Frame, M. W. Gallagher, M. Goodliff, S. L. Gray, B. J. Harvey, P. Knippertz, H. W. Lean, D. Li, G. Lloyd, O. Martínez–Alvarado, J. Nicol, J. Norris, E. Öström, J. Owen, D. J. Parker, R. S. Plant, I. A. Renfrew, N. M. Roberts, P. Rosenberg, A. C. Rudd, D. M. Schultz, J. P. Taylor, T. Trzeciak, R. Tubbs, A. K. Vance, P. J. van Leeuwen, A. Wellpott, and A. Woolley

droplet number concentration exceeds 20 cm –3 or the ice number concentration exceeds 5 L –1 ), radar altitude (×0.1 km, gray dashed), temperature (°C, red), and potential temperature (°C, blue). (c) Droplet number concentration (cm –3 ), as measured by the Cloud Droplet Probe. (d) Ice particle number concentration (L –1 ) as measured by the CIP-100 probe. (e) Diabatic heating and cooling rates associated with ice deposition and sublimation of ice crystals. Red line: mean value calculated over 8-s

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