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E. P. Nowottnick, P. R. Colarco, S. A. Braun, D. O. Barahona, A. da Silva, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, and J. R. Spackman

microphysics scheme for stratiform ( Morrison and Gettelman 2008 ) and convective clouds ( Barahona et al. 2014 ) in GEOS-5, which explicitly calculates the microphysical processes that impact cloud droplets and ice crystals. Simulated aerosol mass is converted to number concentrations for activation using lognormal size distribution parameters from Lance et al. (2004) . In the two-moment cloud microphysics scheme formulation, both homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing are permitted, and the ice number

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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

concentration based on an empirical function depending on temperature and aerosol concentration ( DeMott et al. 2010 ; Shi et al. 2014 ). The estimated CCN is then applied to the autoconversion following the Liu and Daum (2004) formula. The estimated IN number concentrations are applied to the grid-scale cloud physics through the Goddard microphysics scheme as described in W.-K. Tao et al. (2003) and Lang et al. (2011) , in which IN influences the conversion of ice crystals to snow and the growth of

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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

with the low clouds in the eye. The black dashed line shows the approximate flight path (line segments through dropsonde points only). Short curved line segments indicate dropsonde horizontal trajectories, with the release point coinciding with the flight path. Dropsonde times (UTC) are indicated. (b) Storm-relative tangential and (c) radial velocities, and (d) relative humidity with respect to water for temperatures ≥273.15K and with respect to ice at colder temperatures (color shading) from

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