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Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Jeyavinoth Jeyaratnam, Leo J. Donner, Charles J. Seman, Ming Zhao, Huan Guo, and Yi Ming

-mean drop radius for autoconversion of cloud liquid to rain in MPM (10 vs 8 μ m). 2) A larger lower bound on the stratiform subgrid vertical-velocity standard deviation is used for aerosol activation to cloud droplets in MPM (0.7 vs 0.3 m s −1 ). 3) There is a more rapid erosion of stratiform clouds in 2PM (erosion constants 10 to 140 times larger, depending on whether stratiform clouds co-occur with various combinations of diffusion and convection). 4) The ice crystal fall speeds in MPM are two

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Ángel F. Adames and Yi Ming

by dashed lines. Liquid water content and ice crystals are depicted with circles, as in Janiga and Zhang (2016) . The simulated SMDs are found to exhibit a life cycle where they develop over the Bay of Bengal, attain a maximum amplitude as they make landfall over India, and then dissipate as they reach the Arabian Sea. While this life cycle is consistent with previous studies ( Krishnamurthy and Ajayamohan 2010 ; Yoon and Chen 2005 ), it may also be due to our choice of index, which is centered

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Fiaz Ahmed and J. David Neelin

physical justification (from the results of HN09 and SN16 ) and the advantage of making the analytical treatment easier by neglecting the ice-phase physics. The emphasis on the buoyancy below the freezing level does not exclude potential relations to buoyancy above but is hypothesized to give the leading behavior, since the convective plume has to reach the freezing level for deep convection to be initiated. We assume that the bulk plume undergoes reversible moist adiabatic liquid

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Eric D. Maloney, Andrew Gettelman, Yi Ming, J. David Neelin, Daniel Barrie, Annarita Mariotti, C.-C. Chen, Danielle R. B. Coleman, Yi-Hung Kuo, Bohar Singh, H. Annamalai, Alexis Berg, James F. Booth, Suzana J. Camargo, Aiguo Dai, Alex Gonzalez, Jan Hafner, Xianan Jiang, Xianwen Jing, Daehyun Kim, Arun Kumar, Yumin Moon, Catherine M. Naud, Adam H. Sobel, Kentaroh Suzuki, Fuchang Wang, Junhong Wang, Allison A. Wing, Xiaobiao Xu, and Ming Zhao

that may be written in diverse coding languages. PODs developed or under development for the first task include cloud microphysical processes; tropical and extratropical cyclones; ENSO teleconnections and atmospheric dynamics; land–atmosphere interactions; MJO moisture, convection, and radiative processes; precipitation diurnal cycle; AMOC; Arctic sea ice; lake-effect processes; North American monsoon; radiative forcing and cloud–circulation feedbacks; and temperature and precipitation extremes

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