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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Gerald Heymsfield, and Alexandre O. Fierro

). However, intense Atlantic hurricane updrafts such as found for Emily (1987) are likely to contain liquid water to temperatures much below −5°C ( Black et al. 1994 ). In tropical convection, the frozen drops briefly undergo growth as a water and ice mixture and then grow as dry graupel as they are lofted and cool. They accrete cloud droplets, and their fall velocities increase. By −10°C, concentrations of heterogeneously nucleated ice and ice crystals produced by secondary processes begin to become

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Gerald M. Heymsfield, Lin Tian, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Lihua Li, and Stephen Guimond

.g., −35°C) by homogeneous nucleation ( Heymsfield et al. 2005 ). We use this knowledge to obtain a more realistic fall speed relation, knowing that one relation will never satisfy all the possible microphysical scenarios. The fall speeds for the ice phase, υ if are derived from a combination of snow in situ measurements derived from the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers–Florida-Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE, hereafter C-F) convection measurements in Florida

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